History All About Pakistan!

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Nuclear policy
Pakistan acceded to the Geneva Protocol on April 15, 1960, the Biological Weapons Convention in 1974 and the Chemical Weapons Convention on October 28, 1997.In 1999 Pakistan signed the Lahore Accords, with India, agreeing a bilateral moratorium on nuclear testing. However, Pakistan, like India and Israel is not a signatory of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and, consequently, not bound by any of its provisions. Whereas the other declared and undeclared nuclear enabled states have maintained restraint by not proliferating WMDs. Some Pakistani particulars have been said to be involved in some sharings but Islamabad has strictly taken actions against such individuals. Its chief nuclear founder, A.Q. Khan admitted his role in nuclear proliferation leading to fears in the international community about nuclear terrorism. Pakistani nuclear weapons are now in safe hands and here is no need of any worries about these powers.

Nuclear Infrastructure
Pakistan's nuclear program is based primarily on highly enriched uranium (HEU), which is produced at the A. Q. Khan Research Laboratory at Kahuta, a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility. The Kahuta facility has been in use since the early 1980s. By the early 1990s, Kahuta had an estimated 3,000 centrifuges in operation, and Pakistan continued its pursuit of expanded uranium enrichment capabilities.

In the 1990s Pakistan began to pursue plutonium production capabilities. With Chinese assistance, Pakistan built the 40 MWt (megawatt thermal) Khusab Research Reactor at Joharabad, and in April 1998, Pakistan announced that the reactor was operational. According to public statements made by US officials, this unsafeguarded heavy water reactor can produce up to 8 to 10 kilograms of plutonium per year. According to the Wikipedia's plutonium article this is sufficient for one nuclear weapon. The reactor could also produce tritium if it were loaded with lithium-6 although this is unnecessary for weapons purposes because modern nuclear weapon designs use Li6 directly. According to J. Cirincione of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Khusab's plutonium production capacity could allow Pakistan to develop lighter nuclear warheads that would be easier to deliver with a ballistic missile.

Plutonium separation reportedly takes place at the New Labs Reprocessing Plant next to Pakistan's Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (Pinstech) in Rawalpindi and at the larger Chasma Nuclear Power Plant, neither of which are subject to IAEA inspection.

Nuclear Arsenal
The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) estimates that Pakistan has built 24-48 HEU-based nuclear warheads with HEU reserves for 30-52 additional warheads. The US Navy Center for Contemporary Conflict estimates that Pakistan possesses between a low of 35 and a high of 95 nuclear warheads, with a median of 60.

The NRDC's and the Carnegie Foundation's estimates of approx 50 weapons are from 2002-3 estimations.

Pakistan's nuclear warheads are based on an implosion design that uses a solid core of highly enriched uranium and requires an estimated 15-20 kg of material per warhead. The NRDC also thinks that Pakistan has also produced a small but unknown quantity of weapons grade plutonium, which is sufficient for an estimated 3-5 nuclear weapons per annum based on the estimation of 5kg of Plutonium per warhead. Pakistan also claims that the fissile cores are stored separately from the other non-nuclear explosive packages, which Islamabad says can be put together rather quickly.

Foreign Assistance
In the past, the China played a major role in the development of Pakistan's nuclear infrastructure, especially when increasingly stringent export controls in western countries made it difficult for Pakistan to acquire materials and technology elsewhere. According to a 2001 Department of Defense report, China has supplied Pakistan with nuclear materials and has provided critical assistance in the construction of Pakistan's nuclear facilities. This assistance was illegal, per the Nuclear non-proliferation treaty, of which China is a signatory.

Pakistan's Nuclear Doctrine
Pakistan's motive for pursuing a nuclear weapons program is to counter the threat posed by its principal rival, India.

Pakistan has not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). According to the Defense Department report,

"Pakistan remains steadfast in its refusal to sign the NPT, stating that it would do so only after India joined the Treaty. Consequently, not all of Pakistan's nuclear facilities are under IAEA safeguards. Pakistani officials have stated that signature of the CTBT is in Pakistan's best interest, but that Pakistan will do so only after developing a domestic consensus on the issue, and have disavowed any connection with India's decision."

Pakistan does not abide by a no-first-use doctrine; also Pakistan has not issued an official nuclear doctrine. There has also been criticism of Pakistan's nuclear doctrine which gives rise to ambiguity and that they were too eager to use the nuclear option in the Kargil War when the Pakistan Army was facing a stern challenge due to loss of posts and personnel, however this is simply a rumour.

The organization authorized to make decisions about Pakistan's nuclear posturing is the NCA. It was established in February 2000. The NCA is composed of two committees that advise President Musharraf on the development and employment of nuclear weapons; it is also responsible for wartime command and control. In 2001, Pakistan further consolidated its nuclear infrastructure by placing the Khan Research Laboratories and the Pakistan Atomic Research Corporation under the control of one Nuclear Defense Complex.
Pakistan Special Weapons Agencies
National Security Council
  • National Command Authority
  • Ministry of Defense
    • Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (JCSC)
    • Defense Science & Technology Organization (DESTO)
    • Daud Khel Chemical Plant, Lahore
    • Karachi CBW & BW Warfare R&D Laboratory
    • Strategic Planning Directorate (SPD - ex CDD)
Ministry of Defence Production
  • Pakistan Ordnance Factories
  • Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC)
  • Air Weapon Complex, Wah (AWC)
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)
  • Directorate of Technical Development
  • Directorate of Technical Equipment
  • Directorate of Technical Procurement
  • Science and Engineering Services Directorate
  • Institute of Nuclear Power, Islamabad
Pakistan Institute of Science & Technology (PINSTECH)
  • New Laboratories, Rawalpindi
  • Pilot Reprocessing Plant
  • Parr-1 and Parr-2 Research Reactors
  • Center for Nuclear Studies, Islamabad
  • Computer Training Center, Islamabad
  • Nuclear Track Detection Center (a.k.a. Solid State Nuclear Track Detection Center)
Khushab Reactor, Khushab, Punjab National Development Complex/Centre
  • Atomic Energy Minerals Centre, Lahore
  • Hard Rock Division, Peshawar
  • Mineral Sands Program, Karachi
  • Baghalchur Uranium Mine, Baghalchur
  • Dera Ghazi Khan Uranium Mine, Dera Ghazi Khan
  • Issa Khel/Kubul Kel Uranium Mines and Mills, Mianwali District
Multan Heavy Water Production Facility, Multan Division, Punjab
  • Uranium Conversion Facility, Islamabad
  • Golra Ultracentrifuge Plant, Golra
  • Sihala Ultracentrifuge Plant, Sihala
Chasma Nuclear Power Plant I (CHASNUPP-1), Chasma
  • Chasma Fuel Fabrication Plant, Kundian
  • National Engineering Service of Pakistan, Kundian
Chasma Nuclear Power Plant II (CHASNUPP-2), Chasma
  • Chasma Fuel Fabrication Plant, Kundian
  • National Engineering Service of Pakistan, Kundian
Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), Karachi
  • KANUPP Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, Karachi
    • Computer and Development Division
  • Heavy Water Production Plant
  • Paradise Point, Karachi
Space and Upper Atmospheric Research Commission (SUPARCO)
  • Aerospace Institute, Islamabad
  • Computer Center, Karachi
  • Control System Laboratories
  • Flight Test Range, Sonmiani Beach
  • Instrumentation Laboratories, Karachi
  • Material Research Division
  • Quality Control and Assurance Unit
  • Rocket Bodies Manufacturing Unit
  • Solid Composite Propellant Unit
  • Space and Atmospheric Research Center, Karachi
  • Static Test Unit, Karachi
Ministry of Industries & Production
  • State Engineering Corporation (SEC)
  • Heavy Mechanical Complex Ltd. (HMC) Peoples Steel Mills Ltd, Karachi.
Aircraft delivery
There are two units operating the Chinese-built A-5 (No. 16 Sqn and No. 26 Sqn), an aircraft believed to be a leading candidate for the aerial delivery of nuclear weapons. The others are the Mirage IIIOs, Mirage IIIODs and Mirage IIIEs. The Pakistani Air Force currently operates some 156 Mirage aircraft. The allocation of 90 of these aircraft is not currently known. Pakistan also has 34 F16 aircraft all block 15s as of now it recently received 2 block 15OCUs from peace gate 3/4 as a good will gesture from the US in November 2006. All of these F16s are capable of delivering nuclear warheads, they are split in to 2 squadrons both stationed at PAF Sargodha. It is rumoured that the 34 current PAF F16s have been modified for nuclear delivery by PAC Kamra. Also in the 1990s PAF F16s have practiced toss bombing which is a method to deliver nuclear weapons. Pakistan prefers to use ballistic missiles and cruise missiles to deliver nuclear warheads because they have a much longer range than aircraft and don't need the airspace to be cleared of aircraft and SAMS.

In an attempt to modernise its air force Pakistan has recently signed a deal for a purchase of 26 F16 block 15OCUs that were under peace gate 3/4 and 60 MLU kits for block 15s, AMRAAMs, LGBs, and various other missiles and bombs and other items, the purchase of 18 F16 block 50/52+ with an option of 18 more. if all options are exercised this deal will cost $5 billion. All of these F16s will be capable of nuclear delivery.

Also by early 2007 the first 8 JF-17 Thunder aircrafts (FC-1s) will enter service these are pre-production aircraft and more JF-17 Thunder aircrafts will follow these will be capable too of nuclear delivery. Pakistan has also ordered 36 Chinese J-10s for its airforce for cost of $1.4 billion. The Pakistan Air Force is in the midst of a great change in terms of capability. Pakistan has also recently tested its Babur cruise missile having a range of 500km. It seems to be influenced by the Tomahawk cruise missile of the US in terms of appearance, however it is an indigenous weapon. It is a ground launched version and according to Pakistan Military sources the submarine and air delivered versions are soon to follow.

Naval Delivery: PNS Hamza has just been commisoned last year in August, This submarine is a Augosta 90B submarine and with a number of modifications will be able to fire ballistic missiles these modifications may be soon, it can also fire Babur Cruise Missiles and thats if the submarine uses larger tubes to fire this missile. Soon other ships and sumarines maybe retrofitted to fire ballistic and cruise missiles.
 

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CHASHMA NUCLEAR POWER COMPLEX
Chashma Nuclear Power Complex is located at Chashma, Punjab, Pakistan. It consists of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant I (CHASNUPP-1) and Chashma Nuclear Power Plant II (CHASNUPP-2).
KAHUTA RESEARCH LABORATORIES
Kahuta Research Laboratories is located at Kahuta, Punjab, Pakistan. Kahuta is the site of the Khan Research Laboratories [KRL], Pakistan's main nuclear weapons laboratory as well as an emerging center for long-range missile development. The primary Pakistani fissile-material production facility is located at Kahuta, employing gas centrifuge enrichment technology to produce Highly Enriched Uranium [HEU].

History
Chinese assistance in the development of gas centrifuges at Kahuta was indicated by the presence of Chinese technicians at the facility in the early 1980s but it is not confirmed. The uranium enrichment facility began operating in 1984, but suffered serious start up problems. Kahuta began producing HEU in 1986, and Pakistan's fabrication of weapons may have begun soon thereafter, with the HEU hexafluoride being made into uranium metal which was machined into weapon pits. By the late 1980s Pakistan began advertising its nuclear potential by publishing technical articles on centrifuge design, including a 1987 article co-authored by A. Q. Khan on balancing sophisticated ultracentrifuge rotors.

Operations
Operating at full capacity, Kahuta is estimated to have the potential to produce enough weapon-grade uranium for as many as 3 to 6 weapons each year. But the gas centrifuge plant has been plagued by chronic delays. As of 1984 there were reportedly approximately 1,000 centrifuges operating at the facility. About 1991, Pakistan installed additional centrifuges, raising its HEU production capacity roughly threefold. By 1991 about 3000 machines were thought to be operating with a production capacity of 30-50 kg U-235/year, enough for 2-3 implosion weapons a year.

In 1988 the US and Pakistan reached an informal understanding, which according to US officials went into effect in 1993, under which Pakistan agreed to freeze production of bomb-grade HEU indefinitely, and to refrain from enriching uranium to a level above 20% U-235. Prior to the 1998 nuclear tests, the US had reportedly obtained intelligence indicating that Pakistan had stopped production of bomb-grade uranium. However, following the tests A.Q. Khan claimed that Pakistan had never stopped making bomb-grade HEU during the 1980s and 1990s, and reportedly US officials said "we don't have enough information" to conclude that Pakistan was not making weapons-grade HEU. As of mid-1998 estimates of Pakistan's HEU inventory ranged between 100 and 500 kilograms. Assuming that Pakistan would need about 20 kilograms for a single weapon, Pakistan's stockpile might be estimated at between 5 and 25 weapons.

In early 1996 it was reported that the A.Q. Khan Research Laboratory received 5,000 ring magnets, which can be used in gas centrifuges, from the China National Nuclear Corporation, a subsidiary of the China National Nuclear Corporation, a state-owned corporation. The US intelligence community believed the magnets were for special suspension bearings at the top of the centrifuge rotating cylinders. The shipment was made between late 1994 and mid-1995 and was reportedly worth $70,000. Some reports suggested that the ring magnets would allow Pakistan to effectively double its capacity to enrich uranium for nuclear weapons production. Pakistan had operated the plant only intermittently, and little information is publicly available concerning annual or total production of weapon-grade uranium at Kahuta.

Ballistic Missile Development
The Kahuta facility has also been a participant in Pakistan's missile development program. Pakistan operates a ballistic missile research center at Kahuta along with its uranium enrichment operation. KRL has successfully developed and tested Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles based on liquid fuel technology and its associated sub systems.

Other Projects
KRL has also undertaken many other defense projects of national importance to enable Pakistan to become self-reliant in various sophisticated weapon systems and to save valuable foreign exchange. These projects include:
  • Surface-to-Air-Anti-Aircraft Guided Missiles - Anza Mk 1, and Anza Mk-II.
  • 'Baktar-Shikan' Anti-Tank Guided Missile Weapon System.
  • Anti-personnel Mine Sweeping Line Charges.
  • Anti-Tank Mine Clearing Line Charge-Plofadder-195 AT.
  • Laser Range Finder.
  • Laser Threat Sensor
  • Laser Actuated Target
  • Laser Aiming Device
  • Add-On Reactive Armour Kit
  • Anti-Tank Ammunition-Armour Piercing Fin-Stabilized Discordin Sabot (APFSDS)
  • Remote Control Mine Exploder (RCME)
  • Digital Goniometer
  • Power Conditioners for Weapon Systems for TOW ATGM Weapon System, "Baktar Shikan" Weapon System, "ANZA" Training Missile System
  • Switched Mode Power Supplies for LAADS Radar, Skyguard Radar, Air Defense Automation *System.
  • Tow Missile Modules
KARACHI NUCLEAR POWER COMPLEX
Karachi Nuclear Power Complex is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It consists of Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP).
KHAN LABS
Khan Labs was founded and is run by Dr. A. Q. Khan. He is known as the "father" of the Pakistani atomic bomb. In November 2001, George W. Bush claimed that Khan Labs was fictional, that it didn't exist. Then on February 11, 2004, at an emergency press conference, Bush claimed that Khan Labs does exists, and the Bush administration was shocked at having learned that Dr. Khan of Pakistan was running a "flea market" in fissionable material. This, of course, is contradictory to the intelligence gathered during the Clinton administation, which had been closing in on Dr. Khan. However, during the Bush administration, the agents on the case were told to "back off" because Dr. Khan's main source of funding was the Saudi Arabian elite, the royal family, and the bin Ladens (who are business partners of most of the senior Republicans. (Source: Michael Moore, Dude, Where's My Country?)

The story was confirmed by Muammar Gaddafi who, in exchange for the USA and Britain agreeing to end their trade embargo against Libya, would shut down Libya's atomic bomb program and give BP an exclusive oil-drilling agreement.

Dr. Khan was also the one who gave Kim Jong Il of North Korea the fissionable materials and blueprints required to build first-stage, Hiroshima-sized bombs. As of 2006, Kim Jong Il is believed to have at least 6 atomic bombs and missiles capable of reaching every point of Japan and South Korea. (North Korea is currently working on the Taepodong-2, a missile which could reach Alaska and possibly even the West Coast of North America.)

The current plans of Khan Labs are unknown as are the locations of its senior scientists and executive officers.
KHUSHAB REACTOR
Khushab Reactor is located at Khushab, Punjab, Pakistan. The 50 MWt, heavy water and natural uranium research reactor at Khushab is a central element of Pakistan's program for production of plutonium and tritium for advanced compact warheads. The Khushab facility, like that at Kahuta, is not subject to IAEA inspections, but the security of the site is professed by the Pakistani government. Khushab, with a capacity variously reported at between 40 MWT to 50 MWT [and as high as 70 MWT], was "commissioned" in March 1996, and had been under construction with Chinese assistance since the mid-1980s. According to a Pakistani press report ["Pakistan's Indigenous Nuclear Reactor Starts Up," Islamabad The Nation, April 13, 1998], the Khushab plutonium production reactor had gone critical and began operating in early 1998.
MULTAN HEAVY WATER PRODUCTION FACILITY
Multan Heavy Water Production Facility is located in Multan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is heavy water production facility, with an annual capacity of 13 metric tons, obtained from Belgium in 1980. __________________
 

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Airports in Paksitan ( A to J )

ALLAMA IQBAL INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Allama Iqbal International Airport (IATA: LHE, ICAO: OPLA) is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Formerly known as Lahore International Airport, it is named after Allama Iqbal who was a major proponent for the foundation of Pakistan. The Airport has 3 terminals, the Allama Iqbal terminal, the Hajj terminal, and a cargo terminal.

Location
The airport is located about 15 kilometres from the centre of the city.

The Allama Iqbal International Complex
Recently, it has undergone a major renovation which has not only enlarged the airport, but also beautified it with the building of new terminals built to reflect the Mughal history of Lahore. Right now the airport gets an average of 75-80 flights each day, but the number of flights increases during the Hajj season and the airport handles about 3.58 million passengers per year The brand new terminal includes many duty-free shops including restaurants, cafes, ice-cream parlours, confectionery shops, book and toy shops and a souvenir shop. There are many flat screen televisions that show live flight times in the national languages, Urdu and English. The airport has seven air-bridges that dock onto the aircraft during departures and arrivals at the terminal. The total parking spaces are 30. The airport can provide 22 parking spaces for commercial and jet aircraft.
Pakistan International Airlines is a major airline that flies out of Lahore as the flag carrier of Pakistan and uses the airport as a hub only second to Jinnah International Airport. Other Pakistani airlines that operate out of Lahore daily are Aero Asia International, Airblue, and Shaheen Air International. Soon, Safe Air and Pearl Air will be using the airport as an important hub.

The Hajj Terminal
The Hajj terminal is part of the old airport. It is used every year by Pakistan International Airlines for Hajj Operations to take the people who are going on Hajj to The Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia. However, negotiations are underway to allow the private airline to use the terminal as well.

Airlines and destinations

  • Aero Asia Airlines (Abu Dhabi, Al-Ain, Doha, Dubai, Karachi, Muscat)
  • Airblue (Dubai, Karachi)
  • Emirates (Dubai)
  • Etihad Airways (Abu Dhabi)
  • Gulf Air (Bahrain, Muscat)
  • Indian (New Delhi)
  • Kuwait Airways (Kuwait City)
  • Japan Airlines (Tokyo-Nitra) [begins 5,march, 2008]
  • Mahan Air (Tehran-Imam Khomeini)
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Abu Dhabi, Amsterdam, Athens, Bahawalpur, Bangkok, Chicago-O'Hare, Copenhagen, Dammam, Delhi, Dera Ghazi Khan, Doha, Dubai, Frankfurt, Glasgow, Houston-Intercontinental, Islamabad, Jeddah, Karachi, Kuwait City, London-Heathrow, Manchester, Mashhad, Milan-Malpensa, Multan, Muscat, New York-JFK, Oslo, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Peshawar, Quetta, Rahim Yar Khan, Riyadh, Rome-Fiumicino, Sharjah, Sukkur, Toronto-Pearson)
  • Qatar Airways (Doha)
  • Saudi Arabian Airlines (Jeddah, Riyadh, Medina)
  • Shaheen Air International (Abu Dhabi, Al-Ain, Doha, Dubai, Karachi, Kuwait, Muscat)
  • Singapore Airlines (Singapore)
  • Thai Airways International (Bangkok)
  • Uzbekistan Airways (Tashkent)
Cargo airlines
  • Antonov Airlines
  • Askari Aviation
  • Atlas Air
  • Polet Cargo Airlines
  • DHL Cargo
  • Emirates SkyCargo
  • Lufthansa Cargo
  • Ocean Airlines
  • Pakistan International Cargo
  • Royal Airlines Cargo
  • Star Air
  • TCS Couriers
  • United Parcel Service (UPS)
Charter airlines
  • Askari Aviation (Islamabad)
  • Royal Airlines (Karachi)
  • Schon Air (Karachi)
CIP / VIP Lounge The use of the CIP lounge is available to only first class and business class passengers travelling on most airlines arriving at the airport.
There are many banks at Allama Iqbal Airport, Lahore including:
  • Askari Commercial Bank
  • Standard Chartered Bank
  • Union Bank
  • ABN AMRO Bank
Inorder to access the CIP lounge, Passengers travelling in first and business class must be issused a card from Check-in. It costs approx. 6 dollars per passenger to gain access to the lounge.
The CIP lounge has over 20 items, television, newspapers, magazines, telephones, fax machines and free Internet.

BAHAWALPUR AIRPORT
The Bahawalpur Airport (IATA: BHV, ICAO: OPBW) is situated at 10 km from city centre of Bahawalpur, a town in lower Punjab. It is one of the less active airports in Pakistan, as it operates to cater mainly to the population of Bahawalpur, a city of (1998 pop.) 403,408 people.
A new terminal has been recently constructed. On January 21, 2007, Phase two of the Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum Airport in Bahawalpur, Pakistan has been inaugurated, according to the local WAM news agency. Sheikh Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Dubai's Deputy Ruler, opened the facility and viewed the new amenities including the departures and arrivals halls.

Airlines and destinations

  • Pakistan International Airlines (Karachi, Lahore)
Passengers from other Gulf, Europe, North America and South Asia may fly into Bahawalpur Airport via Jinnah International Airport, Karachi, Islamabad International Airport, Islamabad, or Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore.

BANNU AIRPORT
BNP, ICAO: OPBN) is situated at 10 km away from city centre of Bannu. It is not as large as the other airports in Pakistan, as it operates to cater mainly to the population of Bannu.

Airlines and destinations
Currently, Pakistan International Airlines does not have any scheduled flights to Bannu Airpo

CHANDHAR AIRBASE
Chandhar Airbase (IATA: N/A, ICAO: OP1Y) is located at Chandhar, Punjab, Pakistan.

CHASHMA AIRPORT
Chashma Airport (IATA: N/A, ICAO: OP19) is located at Chashma, Punjab, Pakistan. Presently, no passenger airline serves this airport.

CHILAS AIRPORT
Chilas Airport (IATA: CHB, ICAO: OPCL) is located at Chilas, Northern Areas, Pakistan. Currently it is not being used by any passenger airline. The two major airports in Northern Areas are Gilgit Airport and Skardu Airport.

CHITRAL AIRPORT
Chitral Airport (IATA: CJL, ICAO: OPCH) is a small domestic airport, located at Chitral, Northwest Frontier Province, Pakistan.

Airlines and destinations
Pakistan International Airlines flies eleven weekly flights between Peshawar and Chitral. All of these flights are operated by a Fokker F27 aircraft. However, PIA will replace its fleet of Fokker F27 aircraft with the French-Italian ATR 42 in 2006.

DALBADIN AIRPORT
Dalbandin Airport (IATA: DBA, ICAO: OPDB) is a small domestic airport located at Dalbandin, Balochistan, Pakistan. There are two weekly Fokker flights of PIA to/from Karachi.

History
Dalbandin airstrip was constructed in 1935 to serve as a satellite of Samungli Air Base at Quetta. During the Second World War, it was made operationally ready by Royal Air Force to meet a possible Russian invasion through Iran. In the 1970s Dalbandin was a disused airfield. Although the airstrip is visible from high altitude, pilots making a landing approach sometimes found that the airstrip disappears, with sand dunes and sand collected on the runway obscuring it from view. Dust storms are frequent and cause delays in getting airborne.
The airfield was taken over by the Civil Aviation Administraiton [CAA] in 1985, it received a face lift, partially funded by Saudi Arabia, which provided modern navigational aids, air traffic control facilities, passenger terminals and a paved runway. There is twice a week scheduled Pakistan International Airlines service to and from Karachi. While not a military facility, this airfield is available to the Pakistan Air Force for emergency landing and recovery of aircraft during peacetime and wartime.
Currently the United States Marine Corps use Dalbandin as a base for operations into Afghanistan.

Airlines and destinations

  • Pakistan International Airlines (Karachi)
DERA GHAZI KHAN AIRPORT
Dera Ghazi Khan Airport (IATA: DEA, ICAO: OPDG) is situated 10 km away from the city centre of Dera Ghazi Khan. It is not as large as the other airports in Pakistan, as it caters mainly to the population of Dera Ghazi Khan.

Airlines and destinations

  • Pakistan International Airlines (Karachi, Lahore)
DERA ISMAIL KHAN AIRPORT
Dera Ismail Khan Airport (IATA: DSK, ICAO: OPDI) is situated 10 km away from the city centre of Dera Ismail Khan. It is not as large as the other airports in Pakistan, as it caters mainly to the population of Dera Ismail Khan.

Airlines and destinations

  • Pakistan International Airlines (Peshawar)
This airport is not operational now for past 6 years.

DHAMIAL ARMY AIRBASE
Dhamial Army Airbase (IATA: MWD, ICAO: OPQS) is an Pakistan Army airbase and is located just south of Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi District, Pakistan.
FAISALABAD INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
The Faisalabad International Airport (IATA: LYP, ICAO: OPFA) is situated 10 km away from the city centre of Faisalabad on Jhang Road. It is not as large as the other airports in Pakistan, as it operates to cater mainly to the population of Faisalabad , Jhang, Toba Tek Singh, and Sargodha.

Airlines and destinations

  • Airblue (Karachi)
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Dubai, Karachi, Multan)
Cargo Airlines
  • Star Air
  • TCS Courier
  • Emirates SkyCargo (starting 2006 - DXB)
GILGIT AIRPORT
Gilgit Airport (IATA: GIL, ICAO: OPGT) is a small domestic airport, located at Gilgit, Northern Areas, Pakistan. The city of Gilgit is one of the two major hubs for all mountaineering expeditions in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Many tourists choose to travel to Gilgit by air since the road travel between Islamabad and Gilgit by Karakoram Highway takes nearly 24 hours, whereas the air travel takes a mere 45-50 minutes.

Flight between Islamabad and Gilgit
Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) flies 12 weekly flights between Gilgit and Islamabad and the flight is one of the most scenic flights of the world as its route passes over Nanga Parbat and the mountain's peak is higher than the aircraft's cruising altitude. These flights, however, are subject to the clearance of weather and in winters, flights are often delayed by several days.

Aircraft at Gilgit Airport
Because of the short runway at Gilgit airport that is located at the edge of a slope, even an aircraft as small as a Boeing 737 aircraft cannot land and take-off at the Gilgit Airport. Currently PIA operates Fokker F27 aircraft on the Gilgit-Islamabad route but the airline is replacing its ageing Fokker F27 fleet by the French and Italian ATR 42.
Other aircraft that operate at the airport include the military C-130 aircraft.
 

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GAWADAR INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Gwadar International Airport (IATA: GWD, ICAO: OPGD) is a domestic and international airport. It is located in Gwadar, Baluchistan, Pakistan. It is situated approximately 10 km from Gwadar City Centre.

About Gwadar Airport
It is not as large as the other airports in Pakistan, as it operates to cater mainly to the population of Gwadar. Pakistan International Airlines is the main airline flying out of the airport, it connects Gwadar to Karachi (8 times a week), Turbat (4 times a week) and Muscat (twice a week). Oman Air temporarily started flights between Muscat and Gwadar in the mid 1990's using ATR 42 aircraft though the service was suspended due to poor performance.
The construction of the deep sea port at Gwadar has generated a lot of economic activity in the city and other airlines are starting to take note. Airblue recently started flying between Karachi and Gwadar, it operates 14 times a week with 2 flights a day. Sharjah based Orbit Aviation has also obtained clearance from the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) to start twice weekly flights between Sharjah and Turbat with an intermediate stop at Gwadar, these flights are expected to commence from the end of May 2006.
The Government of Pakistan anticipates Gwadar to become a regional economic hub and in preparation for this has issued a directive for the development of The new Gwadar international Airport. For this purpose the CAA has earmarked 3000 acres (12 km²) of land 26 km northeast of the existing airport. The new airport is expected to cost $250 million. It will be given international status and operate under the open skies policy. In the meantime there are plans to improve the facilities at the existing airport to facilitate the movement of wide-bodied aircraft.

Airlines and destinations

  • JS Air (Private) Limited (Gwadar)
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Karachi, Muscat, Turbat)
  • Airblue (Karachi)
  • Orbit Aviation (Sharjah)
  • Emirates (Dubai) [Starts soon)
HYDERABAD AIRPORT
Hyderabad Airport (IATA: HDD, ICAO: OPKD) is a domestic airport, located at Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. Currently, there are no scheduled flights from Hyderabad.

ISLAMABAD INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Islamabad International Airport or Chaklala Airbase (IATA: ISB, ICAO: OPRN) is located in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
The current location of the airport is shared with the "Chaklala Airbase" of Pakistan Air Force. The new location of the Islamabad International Airport has been selected at Fateh Jang, nearly 5 kilometers from Islamabad near Fateh Jang.
The airport houses some squadrons of the Pakistan Air Force, but these squadrons do not contain fighter jets rather they are composed cargo and liaison planes.

Location
The airport is actually located outside of Islamabad, closer to the city of Rawalpindi, in an area known as Chaklala. Being the main airport for the Pakistani capital it often hosts officials and citizens from other nations.

History
As Islamabad International Airport is merged with the PAF operations, the airport hosts many military flights as well as the civilian flights. The airport is more commonly referred to Chaklala.
During 2005, when Pakistan-administered of Kashmir was stuck by the 7.6 killer earthquake, there was a major operation taking place at Islamabad International Airport. It caused a huge increase in traffic at the airport. There were many aircraft from around the world (such as Virgin Atlantic, Air-France Cargo, etc.) operating flights into Islamabad International Airport after a United Nation's call to help the people that had been affected by the killer earthquake. There were many airforce aircraft and cargo airlines regularly visiting the airport to deliver goods that had been collected by many organisations and people overseas. One of the rare sights at the airport was the arrival of the Antonov An-225 Mriya that landed at the airport after a flight from Canada and Europe.
The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) announced on January 7, 2005 the first-ever green-field airport would be built in Islamabad at a cost of $300 million. The contract signing ceremony was held at the CAA headquarters at Jinnah International Airport, Karachi. Pervez Akhtar Nawaz, (Director General CAA, Air Marshal) signed an agreement with a renowned international consultant, Louis Berger Group of USA in association with Pakistani consulting firm ECIL, to undertake project management services. While the first contract for Project Management Services is signed, the CAA is close to receiving bids and proposals from international design consultants and signature architects for design of the new airport. It is envisaged that the Design Consultants will commence their services by the end of March 2006. Soon after the mobilization of the Project Management Consultants, other processes for invitation of bids and award of construction contracts will be initiated. It is anticipated that the new facility will become operational by 2010. The new airport site is located on 3,200 acres of land, acquired by CAA in 1980’s at Pind Ranjha near Fateh Jang, some 20km from Zero-Point, Islamabad and 23 km from Saddar, Rawalpindi involving driving time of only 20-25 minutes through network of motorways and highways. The airport will be developed at par with international standards to serve as major hub for all aviation activities in the region.
Estimated to cost about $300 million, the new Airport facility, which is the first green-field airport in Pakistan, shall comprise a contemporary state-of-the-art passenger terminal building, control tower, runway with a provision of a secondary runway, taxiways, apron, cargo complex, and hangar together with all the necessary infrastructure and ancillary facilities. It would cater to the requirements of latest generation of modern passenger aircraft. The new airport will have a modular design to handle 6.5 million passengers per annum and 80,000 metric tonnes cargo per annum. Being a new airport, a significant portion of the land has been earmarked for commercial purposes such as duty-free shops, hotel and convention centre, air malls, business centre, food courts, leisure and recreational facilities. The new airport is envisaged to be a modern landmark structure symbolic to represent twenty-first century Pakistan, as it will be the diplomatic and business gateway to Pakistan through the Capital City of Islamabad. The CAA has announced that the new airport is to be named "Gandhara International Airport" after the ancient Buddhist kingdom.
The Civil Aviation Authority and the Ministry of Defence are busy in making preparations for the ceremony, the official said. President Musharraf would lay the foundation stone of the project, while Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, elected representatives from the area and various federal ministers and senior government officials would be present on the occasion, he added.
The official said that through a letter, the Ministry of Defence has requested the Capital Development Authority (CDA) to include the area where the new airport will be situated in the capital territory and issue a notification to this effect at the earliest.

Airlines and destinations

  • Aero Asia Airlines (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, East Midlands [Start tbc], Karachi, Manchester [Start tbc])
  • Airblue (Dubai, Karachi)
  • American Airlines (New York-JFK) [Begins 7 September 2008]
  • Ariana Afghan Airlines (Kabul)
  • British Airways (London-Heathrow)
  • China Southern Airlines (Kashi, Ürümqi)
  • Emirates (Dubai)
  • Etihad Airways (Abu Dhabi)
  • Gulf Air (Bahrain, Abu Dhabi, Muscat)
  • Kuwait Airways (Kuwait)
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Amsterdam, Athens, Bahawalpur, Bangkok, Beijing, Birmingham, Chicago-O'Hare, Copenhagen, Dera Ghazi Khan, Dammam, Doha, Dubai, Frankfurt, Gilgit, Glasgow, Hong Kong, Istanbul-Atatürk, Jeddah, Kabul, Karachi, Kuala Lumpur, Lahore, London-Heathrow, London-Stansted, Manchester, Milan-Malpensa, Multan, New York-JFK, Oslo, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Peshawar, Quetta, Rahim Yar Khan, Riyadh, Saidu Sharif, Singapore, Skardu, Sukkur, Tokyo-Narita, Toronto-Pearson)
  • Qatar Airways (Doha)
  • Saudi Arabian Airlines (Jeddah, Riyadh)
  • Shaheen Air International (Abu Dhabi, Al-Ain, Doha, Dubai, Karachi, Kuwait, Muscat)
  • Thai Airways International (Bangkok)
Cargo airlines
  • Emirates SkyCargo
  • Pakistan International Cargo
  • Royal Airlines Cargo
  • Star Air
  • TCS Couriers
  • UPS
Charter airlines
  • Askari Aviation
  • Royal Airlines
Lounges There are separate lounges for international and domestic economy passengers. The domestic and international lounges have been provided all the required facilities that include snack bars, public telephone and internet services. There are also lounges for transit passengers who may be travelling further internationally or domestically. The lounges also have designated prayer areas.

CIP / VIP Lounge
The CIP/VIP lounge can be used by first and business class passengers travelling international or domestic flights. Passengers have to be issued an airline card from the check-in staff. It costs six dollars per passenger and one hundred rupees for domestic passengers. There are also televisions, newspapers and magazines, telephones, fax and free internet. Passengers who are searching banks that have credit card facilites can use the Askari Commercial Bank.

Rawal Lounge
Islamabad International Airport handles VIP passengers who are foreign diplomats and high government military officials. Rawal lounges have been designated for use by such passengers. It provides an executive environment with all the required facilities.

JACOBABAD AIRBASE
Jacobabad Airbase (IATA: JAG, ICAO: OPJA) is located at Jacobabad, Jacobabad District, Sindh, Pakistan.

Airlines and Destinations

  • Pakistan International Airlines (Mohenjodaro)
JINNAH INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Jinnah International Airport previously Quaid-e-Azam International Airport (IATA: KHI, ICAO: OPKC) is Pakistan's largest international and domestic airport. It is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, and is also commonly known as the Jinnah Terminal. The airport is named after Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
The existing capacity allows to handle upto 30 aircrafts at one time. The facility can handle upto 12 million passengers per year. The airport is also provides primary hub for the flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) as well as other smaller airlines. The airport is equipped with aircraft engineering and overhauling facilities with Ispahani Hangar for wide-body aircraft.

History
During the 1940s there was a large black colored hangar (also locally known as Kala Chapra) at the site of Karachi airport, constructed for the British R101 Airship. Only three hangars were ever built in the world to dock and hangar the R101 airships. However, the R101 airship never arrived in Karachi (then part of the British Raj) as it crashed early in its journey in France. This hangar was so huge that aircraft often used it as a visual marker while attempting VFR landings at Karachi. Over the years, the hangar became known as the landmark of Karachi, until it was torn down in 1960s. The airport facilities were further expanded in 1980s to Terminal 2 and Terminal 3 respectively. The present day infrastructure of Jinnah International Complex is a result of an expansion program carried out in 1994.
Karachi was once a much busier airport. Between the 1960s and 1980s it was an online station of several major airlines of the world including British Airways, Lufthansa, Interflug, Tarom, Alitalia, JAT Yugoslavia Airlines, Aeroflot, Philippine Airlines, Nigeria Airways, Ethiopian Airlines, Egypt Air, East African Airways, Kenya Airways, Yemenia, Iran Air, Air France, Qantas, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, Pan Am, MEA, Swissair, SAS and Kuwait Airways. However, due to the emergence of Dubai's airport on the World map, increased usage of longer haul aircraft and the poor political climate of Karachi during 1990s, several airlines discontinued their service to the airport. However, in the past couple of years the dwindling numbers of airlines does seem to have stabilised somewhat and whilst there hasn't been a marked increase in the number of airlines flying to Karachi a few have either started or resumed flights e.g. Cathay Pacific and Singapore Airlines. Economic factors may be partly responsible and as the economy of Karachi and subsequently Pakistan expands there may yet be more carriers willing to return to Jinnah International.
 

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*In search of Oyster Pearls*
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Jinnah International Complex
It has 16 passenger gates and is able to handle 30 planes at the same time. Six million passengers use the airport annually, while the airport itself boasts a capacity of handling up to 12 million passengers in a year.
Jinnah International Airport in Karachi has always been the largest aviation facility in Pakistan. It is the primary hub of Pakistan International Airlines (PIA). All other Pakistani airlines also use Jinnah International Airport as their main hub. This includes Aero Asia International, Air Blue, Shaheen Air and the new airlines soon to be launched; Pearl Air & Safe Air.
The building is linked via connecting corridors to two satellites, each having a provision of eight passenger-loading bridges. The eastern satellite is devoted exclusively to handling international operations. The western satellite is used for domestic operations, as well as some international operations. This is achieved through a flexible arrangement of gates. The two satellites supplement the departure lounges of the Terminal Building and also provide shopping facilities and snack counters.
The Jinnah Terminal was completed in 1992 at a cost of $100 Million - at its time the most expensive civil construction project in Pakistan. NESPAK (National Engineering Services Pakistan) and Airconsult (Frankfurt, Germany) were responsible for the architecture and planning of the terminal. Sogea Construction, a French company, was the contractor. Mukhtar Husain (NESPAK) was the Chief Architect for the new terminal.

The Ispahani Hangar
Jinnah International Airport is also where the majority of PIA's maintenance network is located, although some of its maintenance work also takes place at Islamabad International Airport. There are several hangars at the airport, the largest is the Isphhani Hangar (named after a very historic person in Pakistan's history) that can accommodate two Jumbo 747s and one narrow body airliner (e.g. Boeing 737) at one time.
On 15 February 2006, the first major overhaul of a Boeing 777-200ER aircraft (known as "C" check) was done at Ispahani Hangar.
Most of the PIA aircraft are checked and regulated at the aircraft hangars in Karachi. The PIA maintenance also check other airline aircraft in Karachi such as Philippine Airlines and Turkish Airlines.

Airlines and destinations

  • Aero Asia International (Abu Dhabi, Al-Ain, Doha, Dubai, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Lahore, Multan, Muscat, Peshawar, Quetta, Sukkur)
  • Air Arabia (Sharjah)
  • Airblue (Dubai, Faisalabad, Gwadar, Islamabad, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta)
  • Air China (Beijing, Kuwait)
  • British Airways (London-Heathrow)
  • Biman Bangladesh Airlines (Dhaka)
  • Belavia (Minisk) (seasnoal)
  • Cathay Pacific (Bangkok, Hong Kong)
  • Emirates (Dubai)
  • Eritrean Airlines (Assmara)
  • Etihad Airways (Abu Dhabi, Muscat)
  • Gulf Air (Bahrain, Muscat)
  • Iran Air (Tehran-Mehrabad)
  • Libyan Arab Airlines (Tripoli) [Future in 2009]
  • Malaysia Airlines (Kuala Lumpur)
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Bahawalpur, Bahrain, Colombo, Dalbandin, Dammam, Delhi, Dera Ghazi Khan, Dhaka, Doha, Dubai, Faisalabad, Gwadar, Islamabad, Jacobabad, Jeddah, Kathmandu, Kuala Lumpur, Kuwait, Lahore, London-Heathrow, London-Stansted, Manchester, Mashhad, Milan-Malpensa, Moenjodaro, Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Multan, Mumbai, Muscat, New York-JFK, Panjgur, Pasni, Peshawar, Quetta, Rahim yar Khan, Riyadh, Singapore, Sukkur, Toronto-Pearson, Turbat)
  • Phoenix Aviation (Bishkek, Sharjah)
  • Qatar Airways (Doha)
  • Saudi Arabian Airlines (Dammam, Jeddah, Medinah, Riyadh)
  • Shaheen Air (Abu Dhabi, Al-Ain, Doha, Dubai, Islamabad, Kuwait, Lahore, Muscat, Peshawar, Quetta)
  • Singapore Airlines (Singapore)
  • SriLankan Airlines (Colombo, Mumbai)
  • Schon Air (Lahore)
  • Syrian Arab Airlines (Damascus, Dammam)
  • Thai Airways International (Bangkok, Muscat)
  • Turkish Airlines (Istanbul-Atatürk)
Cargo airlines
  • Askari Aviation
  • Atlas Air
  • Cargolux
  • Dolphin Air
  • DHL Cargo
  • Pakistan International Cargo
  • MNG Airlines
  • Phoenix Aviation
  • TCS Courier
  • Royal Airlines Cargo
  • Shaheen Air International
  • Star Air
Charter AIRLINES
  • JS Air (Private) Limited
  • Royal Airlines
  • Schon Air
VIP / CIP Lounge The CIP/VIP Lounge can be used by all first and business class passengers on all flights out of Karachi. Passengers being issued an airline card from the Check-in can only enter the lounge. Also passengers wanting to use the lounge have to pay six dollars before entering.
There are a number of banks that passengers can use while waiting for their flight that include: Askari Commercial Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, Union Bank, and ABN AMRO Bank.
Other services include TVs for Entertainment, Newspapers and magazines, Telephones, Fax & free Internet.
__________________[DOUBLEPOST=1358389869][/DOUBLEPOST]AirportsAirports in Paksitan ( J to Z )

JIWANI AIRPORT
Jiwani Airport (IATA: JIW, ICAO: OPJI) is situated 10 km away from the city centre of Jiwani in Balochistan. It is not a major airport of Pakistan. At this time, there is no scheduled service to or from the airport.
KADANWARI AIRPORT
Kadanwari Airport (IATA: KCF, ICAO: N/A) is a domestic airport, located at Kadanwari, Sindh, Pakistan. It is not being used by any passenger airline.
KHUZDAR AIRPORT
Khuzdar Airport (IATA: KDD, ICAO: OPKH) is situated at 5 km away from city centre of Khuzdar, Balochistan, Pakistan. It is not as large as the other airports in Pakistan, as it operates to cater mainly to the population of Khuzdar. As of right now, there are no scheduled flights to or from the airport.
KOHAT AIRBASE
Kohat Airbase (IATA: OHT, ICAO: OPKT) is located at Kohat, Kohat District, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

On 20 February 2003, Mushaf Ali Mir and 16 others were killed when their Fokker F27 crashed into the hills near the airbase. The aircraft was inbound to Kohat from Chaklala Airbase. Included in the dead were the wife of Mushaf Ali Mir and two Air Vice-Marshals.
MANGLA AIRPORT
Mangla Airport (IATA: XJM, ICAO: OPMA) is situated 10 km (6.2 mi) from the city centre of Mangla, Pakistan. It is not being used by any commercial airlines, but only for military purposes.
MASROOR AIRBASE
Masroor Airbase (IATA: N/A, ICAO: OPMR) is located at Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
MIANWALI AIRBASE
Mianwali Airbase (IATA: MWD, ICAO: OPMI) is located at Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan.
MOENJODARO AIRPORT
Moenjodaro Airport (IATA: MJD, ICAO: OPMJ) is located at Mohenjo-daro, Sindh, Pakistan.

Airlines
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Karachi)
Cargo Airlines
  • Pakistan International Cargo
Future Airlines
  • Pearl Air
MULTAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Multan International Airport (IATA: MUX, ICAO: OPMT) is an airport situated 10 km away from the city centre of Multan in Punjab, Pakistan. It is not as large as the other airports in Pakistan, as it operates to cater mainly to the population of Multan, Vehari, Khanewal, Muzaffargarh, Rajanpur, Sahiwal, and Pakpattan.


Airlines and Destinations
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Dubai, Faisalabad, Karachi, Lahore)
Future Airlines
  • Pearl Air (Islamabad, Karachi, Quetta)
  • Safe Air (Islamabad, Karachi, Faisalabad)
Cargo Airlines
  • Emirates SkyCargo (In 2006 - Dubai Intl Airport)
MURID AIRBASE
Murid Airbase is located at Murid, Punjab, Pakistan.
PANJGUR AIRPORT
Panjgur Airport (IATA: PJG, ICAO: OPPG) is a domestic airport, located at Panjgur, Balochistan, Pakistan.


Airlines and destinations
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Karachi, Pasni)
PARACHINAR AIRPORT
Parachinar Airport (IATA: PAJ, ICAO: OPPC) is an airport located in Parachinar, FATA, Pakistan. Located at about a 25 minute drive from the center of Parachinar, it is the only airport in FATA that is served by any passenger airline, namely Pakistan International Airlines. Presently (February 2007), the PIA service is temporarily suspended.

Airfield data
  • Runway 1: Aircraft size max: Airbus Airbus A330
  • Cargo Facilities: Animal Quarantine
Airlines and destinations
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Peshawar, temporarily suspended)
PASNI AIRPORT
Pasni Airport (IATA: PSI, ICAO: OPPI) is a domestic airport, located at Pasni City, Balochistan, Pakistan.

Airlines and destinations
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Karachi, Panjgur)
PESHAWAR INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Peshawar International Airport (IATA: PEW, ICAO: OPPS) is an airport located in the city of Peshawar in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Located about a 25 minute drive from the center of Peshawar, it is the 4th busiest airport in Pakistan.


Airlines and destinations
  • Aero Asia International (Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Doha, Dubai, Karachi) Service Stopped Nationwide
  • Air Arabia (Sharjah)
  • Airblue (Dubai, Karachi)
  • Emirates (Dubai)
  • Etihad Airways (Abu Dhabi)
  • Gulf Air (Bahrain, Muscat)
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Chitral,Doha, Dubai, Islamabad, Jeddah, Kabul, Karachi, Kuwait, Lahore,Riyadh)
  • Qatar Airways (Doha)
  • Shaheen Air International (Dubai, Karachi, Quetta)
  • Saudi Arabian Airlines (Jeddah, Riyadh)
Cargo Airlines
  • Emirates SkyCargo
  • Etihad Crystal Cargo
  • Pakistan International Cargo
  • Royal Airlines Cargo
  • Star Air
  • Shaheen Air
  • TCS Couriers
  • Gulf Air Cargo
Charter Companies
  • Askari Aviation
QUETTA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Quetta International Airport (IATA: UET, ICAO: OPQT) is located at Quetta, the provincial capital of Balochistan, Pakistan.

Airlines and Destinations

Direct flights to the airport include:
  • Airblue (Karachi)
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Zhob)
  • Shaheen Air International (Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar)
Cargo Airlines
  • Askari Aviation
  • Pakistan International Cargo
RAWALAKOT AIRPORT
Rawalakot Airport (IATA: RAZ, ICAO: OPRT) is located at Rawala kot in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
SAHIWAL AIRPORT
Sahiwal Airport (IATA: SWN, ICAO: OPSW) is a new regional airport in the vicinity of Sahiwal, Pakistan.

The airport is still under construction. It is located on Pakpatan road, Sahiwal. Like any other big city, the airport has been located in a place to save the natural beauty of Sahiwal. Its location will make sure that it will not add noise and fuel pollution to residents of Sahiwal.It will cause minimum disturbance to the city.

Airport data
  • Runway Length : 9285 ft
  • Runway Elevation : 570 ft
  • Longitude : 73° 6’ 0” E
  • Latitude : 30° 40’ 0” N
Currently, there is no airport under-construction in Sahiwal. There were plans to construct one many years ago. But, unfortunately those plans were never implemented.

SAIDU SHARIF AIRPORT
Saidu Sharif Airport (IATA: SDT, ICAO: OPSS) is an airport in Pakistan. It is situated near the Swat River and between villages of Dherai and Kanju in the North-West Frontier Province. The airport was built in the era of the late Wali Swat (the last ruler of the State of Swat) and two flights take place daily: one from this airport to Peshawar International Airport and the other to Islamabad International Airport. Many visitors that come to the valley of Swat and to the Malam Jabba ski resort in summers fly to Swat through this airport.

Airlines
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Peshawar & Islamabad)
Cargo Airlines
  • Pakistan International Cargo
SARGODHA AIRPORT
Sargodha Airbase (IATA: SGI, ICAO: OPSR) is located at Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.
SEHWAN SHARIG AIRPORT
Sehwan Sharif Airport (IATA: SYW, ICAO: OPSN) is located at Sehwan Sharif, Sindh, Pakistan.

Cargo Airlines
  • Pakistan International Cargo
SHAHEEN AIRPORT SERVICES
Shaheen Airport Services (SAPS) is the largest ground handling agency in the private sector of Pakistan, providing facilities to commercial, corporate and private airlines at Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar and Quetta. SAPS headquarters is located in Karachi, although it has many offices located in many citities in Pakistan.

SAPS is a subsidiary of Shaheen Foundation, a welfare organization of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) and was established in 1982, from a humble start to this day we have grown into a leading organization noted for its quality service and modernized approach. Its cargo warehouses at all stations are equipped to meet all cargo handling under one roof.

The cargo screening facilities coupled with the latest in CCTV further enhance our commitment to security. Our partners in business comprise a large number of international carriers with towering reputations from around the globe including corporate and international operators like the United Nations as well as numerous private organizations. Being a member of the IATA group, our services conform to international standards and we strive hard to make it improve continuously.

Services
The following services offered by SAPS are available at the following airports in Pakistan: Jinnah International Airport, Karachi; Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore; Islamabad International Airport, Islamabad; Peshawar International Airport, Peshawar; Quetta International Airport, Quetta;
  • Aircraft Handling
  • Aircraft Maintenance
  • Cargo Handling
  • Cute (T/E)
  • Car Rental Services
  • Catering Services
  • Cabin Servicing
  • DCS (SITA DCS)
  • Equipment
  • Flight Operations
  • Passenger Handling
  • Ramp Services
  • Security
Airlines
The following list of passenger airlines are currently using SAPS as of May 2006;
  • Airblue
  • British Airways
  • Cathay Pacific Airways
  • Etihad Airways
  • Gulf Air
  • Iran Air
  • Kuwait Airways
  • Malaysia Airlines
  • Qatar Airways
  • Royal Airlines
  • Saudi Arabian Airlines
  • Shaheen Air International
  • Singapore Airlines
  • Thai Airways
Cargo Airlines
The following list of cargo airlines are currently using SAPS as of May 2006;
  • Alitalia
  • Cargolux Airlines
  • Lufthansa Cargo
  • Shaheen Air Cargo
  • Swiss World Cargo
SHAIKH ZAYED INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Shaikh Zayed International Airport (IATA: RYK, ICAO: OPRK) is located at Rahimyar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is named in honor of Shaikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahayan, as it was originally built for his exclusive use, so that he may visit his "Desert Palace" just outside the city. But he later donated it to the Government of Pakistan.

Airlines
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Karachi, Lahore, Sukkur & Islamabad)
Private flights are available from UAE Airlines to Dubai.
 

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SHORKOT ROAD AIRBASE
Shorkot Road Airbase or Rafiqi Airbase (IATA: N/A, ICAO: OPRQ) is located at Rafiqi in Pakistan.
SIALKOT INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Sialkot International Airport (IATA: SKT, ICAO: N/A) is situated 14 km (8.7 mi) west of Sialkot in the Sialkot District of Pakistan. It is a smaller airport and caters mainly to the population of Sialkot.

History
On February 2 2001, The President of Pakistan, Chief Executive General Pervez Musharraf approved the construction of an international airport at Sialkot for passenger and cargo traffic. A team of directors were approved, under the chairmanship of Mian Muhammad Riaz(CEO of Dr. Frigz International & three times chairman for SIAL) all of whom placed personal wealth into the project as a primary investment. Each director on the board had previous experience of running sizeable and successful enterprises, therefore they were all selected due to this knowledge. Also, with Rs 5 million of personal investment in the project by each one of them, the directors had a direct stake in its profitability. As the development of SIAL went on, the number of directors had reached 223 and it was decided to close membership to the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors at SIAL inspired confidence that the potential of the airport project will be fully realized. On February 26 2001, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between the Sialkot Chamber of Commerce & Industry and the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan with the approval of Ministry of Defence for the construction of the international airport in Sialkot.

By March 24 2005, Sialkot International Airport Limited (SIAL) formed under the auspices of the Chamber. On March 26 2005, The first plane landed on the newly constructed Sialkot International Airport runway, that was built to handle a fully loaded Boeing 747 as SIAL future plans involved dealing with heavy aircraft for cargo imports and exports.

Airlines
  • Askari Aviation
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Karachi, Dubai, Multan, Jeddah, Riyadh, Medina)
  • Aero Asia International (Karachi, Multan, Dubai)
  • Schon Air
  • Emirates Airlines (Dubai)
  • Saudi Arabian Airlines (Jeddah,Riadh and Dammam)
  • Lufthansa (Frankfurt)
Cargo Airlines
  • PIA Cargo
  • Emirates SkyCargo (starting 2006 - DXB)
Future Airlines
  • Pearl Air (Islamabad, Karachi, Quetta)
  • Safe Air (Islamabad, Karachi, Multan)
Destinations
Many passengers flying from overseas (outside Pakistan) to Sialkot International Airport, will fly into the Jinnah International Airport, Karachi, Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore or Islamabad International Airport, Islamabad and then get connecting flights to Sialkot.
Direct domestic destinations include:
  • Jinnah International Airport, Karachi
  • Islamabad International Airport, Islamabad
  • Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore
  • Multan International Airport, Multan
Direct international destinations include:
  • Dubai International Airport, Dubai
  • King Abdulaziz International Airport, Jeddah
  • King Khaled International Airport, Riyadh
  • Prince Mohammad Bin Abdulaziz Airport, Medina
  • Prince Mohammad Bin Abdulaziz Airport, Medina
Great Britain, USA and Europe!

Services
  • Fuel farm
  • Aircraft ground maintenance services
  • Catering
  • Other related services through concessions to private parties.
Runway & Taxiways
  • Runway;
    • 3,600 meter long, 45-meter wide with 7.5-meter wide shoulders on either side orresponding to International Civil Aviation Organization Category 4E.
  • Link Taxiway;
    • 263-meter long, 23-meter wide with 10.5-meter shoulders.
  • Aprons;
    • For passenger and cargo, 45,000-Sq meter area. Combination of flexible and rigid pavements.
    • Nose-in parking for 4 wide-bodied aircraft at a time or 3 Airbus plus 3 F-27 aircraft at a time.
Future development for the airport
Sialkot is a major export hub of Pakistan. The airport is being upgraded to make it compatible to carry the load of Boeing 747. The airport authority is currently working with a private company to develop th airport to meet international standards. The airport has developed a brand new runway so heavier aircraft can land their. There is a new terminal currently being build to deal with increase in passengers as well as cargo imports and exports.

SIBI AIRPORT
Sibi Airport (IATA: SBQ, ICAO: OPSB) is a domestic airport, located at Sibi, Balochistan, Pakistan.

SINDHRI AIRPORT
Sindhri Airport (IATA: MPD, ICAO: OPMP) is located at Sindhri, Sindh, Pakistan. Presently it is not in use by any passenger airline.
SKARDU AIRPORT
Skardu Airport (IATA: KDU, ICAO: OPSD) is a small domestic airport, located at Skardu, Northern Areas, Pakistan. Skardu is one of the two major hubs of all trekking expeditions in the Northern Areas, a region that includes four of the fourteen Eight-thousander peaks (8,000 m (26,247 ft) and above) of the world. Skardu is the gateway to Baltoro Glacier, Concordia, where spectacular views of three of the Eight-thousanders are available.

Although the journey from Islamabad to Skardu by Karakoram Highway provides a beautiful scenery, the journey by road takes 20 to 24 hours whereas the flight time for the same journey is nearly 50 minutes. This makes air travel from Islamabad to Skardu an attractive choice for many trekkers.

Airlines and destinations
Pakistan International Airlines runs a daily flight between Skardu and Islamabad International Airport. Skardu can accommodate a Boeing 737 aircraft.

SUI AIRPORT
Sui Airport (IATA: SUL, ICAO: OPSU) is located at Sui in the Balochistan province of Pakistan.

Airlines and Destinations
  • Royal Airlines (Karachi)
SUKKUR AIRPORT
Sukkur Airport (IATA: SKZ, ICAO: OPSK) is located at Sukkur in the Sukkur District of Pakistan. It is small airport and caters mainly to the population of Sukkur.

Passenger Airlines
  • AeroAsia karachi
  • Pakistan International airlines Karachi , Queeta ,Multan
TARBELA DAM AIRPORT
Tarbela Dam Airport (IATA: TLB, ICAO: OPTA) is located near the Indus River in the Haripur District of Pakistan and is part of the Tarbela Dam project.
TURBAT AIRPORT
Turbat International Airport (IATA: TUK, ICAO: OPTU) is located at Turbat, Balochistan, Pakistan.

About Turbat Airport
The airport is much smaller than other airports of Pakistan. Until very recently Pakistan International Airlines was the only airline operating from the airport however Sharjah based carrier Orbit Aviation has obtained clearance from the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority to start twice weekly flights between Sharjah and Turbat via Gwadar. These flights will commence once necessary arrangements are in place to facilitate the operation of international flights. Airblue has also announced that it intends to start flying to Turbat in the near future after it started regular flights to Gwadar.

Airlines & Destinations
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Dalbandin, Gwadar, Karachi & Sharjah)
  • Orbit Aviation (Sharjah)
Future Airlines
  • Airblue (Karachi)
WALTON AIRPORT
Walton Airport (IATA: N/A, ICAO: OPLH) is situated 10 km (6 mi) from the city centre of Lahore. It caters to general aviation and is used by several flying clubs. Lahore's main airport is Allama Iqbal International Airport.
ZHOB AIRPORT
Zhob Airport (IATA: PZH, ICAO: OPZB) is a small domestic airport located at Zhob, Balochistan, Pakistan. It is a smaller airport and caters mainly to the population of Zhob. There are only two weekly flights by Pakistan International Airlines to Peshawar and Quetta from Zhob.

Passenger Airlines
  • Pakistan International Airlines (Peshawar, Quetta)
[DOUBLEPOST=1358389899][/DOUBLEPOST]Cantonments in Pakistan

CLIFTON CANTONMENT
The Clifton Cantonment is a cantonment town of the city of Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment. It was established by the British Indian Army in 19th century British India, and taken over by the Pakistan Army in 1947. The cantonment maintains its own infrastructure of water supply, electricity and is outside the jurisdiction of City District Government of Karachi.

FAISAL CANTONMENT
The Faisal Cantonment is a cantonment town of the city of Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment. It was established by the British Indian Army in 19th century British India, and taken over by the Pakistan Army in 1947. The cantonment maintains its own infrastructure of water supply, electricity and is outside the jurisdiction of City District Government of Karachi.

KARACHI CANTONMENT
The Karachi Cantonment is a cantonment town of the city of Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment. It was established by the British Indian Army in 19th century British India, and taken over by the Pakistan Army in 1947. The cantonment maintains its own infrastructure of water supply, electricity and is outside the jurisdiction of City District Government of Karachi.

KORANGI CREEK CANTONMENT
The Korangi Creek Cantonment or Korangi Cantonment is a cantonment town of the city of Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment. It was established by the British Indian Army in 19th century British India, and taken over by the Pakistan Army in 1947. The cantonment maintains its own infrastructure of water supply, electricity and is outside the jurisdiction of City District Government of Karachi.

MALIR CANTONMENT
The Malir Cantonment is a cantonment town of the city of Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment. It was established by the British Indian Army in 19th century British India, and taken over by the Pakistan Army in 1947. The cantonment maintains its own infrastructure of water supply, electricity and is outside the jurisdiction of City District Government of Karachi.

MANORA CANTONMENT
The Manora Cantonment is a cantonment town in a small Manora Island, located just south of the Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment. It was established by the British Indian Army in 19th century British India, and taken over by the Pakistan Army in 1947. The cantonment maintains its own infrastructure of water supply, electricity and is outside the jurisdiction of City District Government of Karachi.


CANTONMENT BOARDS IN PAKISTAN

Baluchistan
  • Ormara Cantonment
  • Quetta Cantonment
  • Zhob Cantonment
N.W.F.P.
  • Abbottabad Cantonment
  • Bannu Cantonment
  • Dera Ismail Khan Cantonment
  • Kohat Cantonment
  • Loralai Cantonment
  • Mardan Cantonment
  • Nowshera Cantonment
  • Peshawar Cantonment
  • Risalpur Cantonment
  • Sanjwal Cantonment
Punjab
  • Attock Cantonment
  • Bhawalpur Cantonment
  • Chaklala Cantonment
  • Faisal Abad are in no cantonment limit
  • Gujranwala Cantonment
  • Jhelum Cantonment
  • Kamra Cantonment
  • Kharian Cantonment
  • Multan Cantonment
  • Murree Gali Cantonment
  • Murree Hills Cantonment
  • Okara Cantonment
  • Rawalpindi Cantonment
  • Sargodha Cantonment
  • Shorkot Cantonment (PAF Rafiqui)
  • Sialkot Cantonment
  • Taxila Cantonment
  • Lahore Cantonment
  • Wah Cantonment
  • Walton Cantonment (Created out of the southern parts of the original Lahore Cantt.)
Sindh
  • Hyderabad Cantonment
  • Pano Aqil Cantonment
Azad Kashmir
  • Mangla Cantonment
[DOUBLEPOST=1358389912][/DOUBLEPOST]CIVIL SERVICE ACADEMY

Situated in Lahore, Pakistan the Civil Services Academy Lahore was established in 1948 for the training of fresh entrants to the Pakistan Administrative Services (P.A.S.) and was originally called Pakistan Administrative Services Academy. With the adoption of Civil Services Pakistan Resolution, the Academy was renamed as Civil Services Academy and the campus was shifted form an old building on the Race Course Road to the Old Residency Estate on Mall Road. Meanwhile in addition to the probationers of Civil Services of Pakistan (CSP) the Academy also started training the probationers of Foreign Services of Pakistan in 1963. After the creation of Bangladesh in 1971 and the consequent loss of the Police Academy of Pakistan (then situated at Rajshahi in Bangladesh) the probationers of Police Services of Pakistan (PSP) also started training in this Academy.

With the adoption of Administrative Reforms of 1973, it was decided to organize a Common Training Program (CTP) for fresh entrants to various Central Superior Services (renamed as Occupational Groups). As a consequence the Civil Services Academy and Finance Services Academy (FSA) were merged. This Financial Services Academy was set-up by the Government of Pakistan in mid 1950s for the training of probationers of various Financial Services such as Pakistan Taxation Services (PTS), Pakistan Customs and Excise Services (PCES), Pakistan Military Accounts Service (PMAS), Pakistan Audit and Accounts Service (PAAS), and Pakistan Railway’s Accounts Service (PRAS). The huge campus of Financial Services Academy was located at Walton, which was then a sparsely populated suburb of Lahore. This new entity, created out of this merger, was renamed as Academy for Administrative Training. However, this name was once again changed to Civil Services Academy by the then President of Pakistan during his visit to the Academy in 1981.

Presently the Academy has one Campus at Walton (used exclusively for the Common Training Program) and another one at Mall Road (which is used for the Specialized Training Program of the District Management Group Officers).

Previously the Academy was a subordinate or attached department of Establishment Division, Government of Pakistan but now its an autonomous body and is run by its own Board of Governors with President of Pakistan as its Chair. The administration of the academy is run by a Director General who is usually a senior most civil servant. __________________[DOUBLEPOST=1358389929][/DOUBLEPOST]National Police Academy

In United Pakistan, there was Police Academy at Sardah, former East Pakistan. After separation, National Police Academy was established in 1978 for education and training of middle and senior level law enforcement officers especially PSP officers. Affairs of National Police Academy are administered by Board of Governors headed by Minister of Interior and comprises senior police officers, civil servants and persons of eminence from the private sector. __________________
 

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Political Parties Of Pakistan

Political Parties Of Pakistan






Parties active in national and provincial politics




1.Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians (PPPP)

The Pakistan Peoples Party was launched at its founding convention held in Lahore on November 30 - December 01, 1967.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was elected as its Chairman. Among the express goals for which the Party was formed were the establishment of an "egalitarian democracy" and the "application of socialistic ideas to realize economic and social justice". A more immediate task was to struggle against the hated military dictatorship at the height of its power when the PPP was formed. Basic principles of PPP enshrined:

*Islam is our Faith
*Democracy is our Politics
*Socialism is our Economy
*All Powers to the People

The Party also promised the elimination of feudalism in accordance with the established principles of socialism to protect and advance the interests of peasantry.


2.Pakistan Muslim League (N)(PML “Nawaz group”)

The Pakistan Muslim League (N) is a political party in Pakistan. It is led by Nawaz Sharif. It was Pakistan Muslim League, founded in 1962, as a successor to the previously disbanded Muslim League, and gained the (Nawaz) or (N) in 1993 for its leader, Nawaz Sharif. A Pakistan Muslim League (J) was formed in 1986.


3.Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PML “Quaid-i-Azam group”)

The Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-e-Azam), or PML-Q is a centrist political party in Pakistan, derived from the original Pakistan Muslim League which had laid foundation of the state of Pakistan. It is widely considered as a centrist to conservative party. Although, in the abbrevation PML-Q, Q stands for Quaid-e-Azam or Quaid-e-Azam Group, party's critics call it Qainchi and somestimes Qainchi Group.Qainchi is Urdu word for scissors which refers to the fact most of the members of PML-Q left PML-N to join it.

PML-Q was formed in 2001, when the Pakistan Muslim League fractured into several parties, of which the PML-Q was the smallest in terms of public support. The party strongly supports President Pervez Musharraf. Most members of the original PML now are part of the PML-Q. PML(Q) is considered major supporter of President Gen. Musharraf policies.


4. Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM)

Muttahida Qaumi Movement generally known as MQM, is a political party in Pakistan founded and currently led by Altaf Hussain. It originated as an ethnic student organization in 1978 from University of Karachi . The students movement later turned into an influential political party of Sindh. Later on July 26, 1997, MQM officially changed its name from Muhajir Qaumi Movement to Muttahida Quami Movement. MQM is infamous for its frequent involvement in terrorist activities although its leaders routinely deny such accusations. International organizations such as the UNHCR and the United States Department of State frequently cite examples of MQM's involvement in terrorism, especially within Karachi, Pakistan's commercial center.


5.Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA)

MMA is alliance of Islamic relgious political parties staunchly believing in democratic values, which has always welcomed constructive criticism.

Their basic ideas are islamic philosophy and ideology and also want devolution of powers on gross-roots level and hence pursuing the policy of further improving and strengthening the new local government system in the provinces.
The election manifesto of MMA promised enforcing the Islamic laws and systems in the country and the end of US influence in the region. It also promised to check the rising inflation level and to create job opportunities with stress on education and health sectors.


Minor Parties

* Awami National Party
* Awami Tehreek
* Balochistan National Party
* Balochistan National Movement
* Communist Party of Pakistan
* Communist Mazdoor Kissan Party
* Federal National Movement
* Green Party of Pakistan
* Jamhoori Wattan Party
* Jamiat Ahlehadith Pakistan
* Jeay Sindh Qaumi Mehaz
* Khaksar Tehrik
* Millat Party
* National People’s Party (NPP)
* Pakhtunkhwa Milli Awami Party
*Pakistan Awami Tehrik
* Pakistan Democratic Party
* Pakistan Muslim League (F) (also known as Functional Muslim League or PML Pagaro Group)
* Pakistan People’s Party (S)
* Hizb ut-Tahrir
* Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (Chairman Imran Khan)
* Pakistan Progressive Party
* Pasban (Voice Against Injustice) (Altaf Shakoor)
* Sindh Democratic Alliance
* Sindh National Front
* Sindh National Party
* Sindh Taraqi Pasand Party
* Tehrik-e-Istiqlal
* Hazara Qumi Mahaz (HQM)


Parties In Parliament

* Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-i-Azam), PML (Q) (led by Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain)
* Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians, PPPP (led by Benazir Bhutto)
* Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, MMA (led by Maulana Fazl ur-Rahman and Qazi Hussain Ahmad)
* Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz), PML (N) (led by Nawaz Sharif)
* Muttahida Qaumi Movement, MQM (led by Altaf Hussain)
* National Alliance, NA (led by Imtiaz Sheikh)
* Pakistan Muslim League (Functional)
* Pakistan Muslim League (Junejo)
* Pakistan Peoples Party (Sherpao)
* Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf
* Pakistan Awami Tehrik
* Pakistan Muslim League (Zia)
* Balochistan National Party
* Jamhoori Watan Party
* MQM(H)
* PSPP
* Independent candidates[DOUBLEPOST=1358390023][/DOUBLEPOST]Awards Of Pakistan

Awards Of Pakistan




Military Awards

Awards and decorations of the Pakistan military are military decorations which recognize a member's service and personal accomplishments while a member of the Pakistan armed forces.



1.Nishan-i-Haider

This is Pakistan's highest decoration for the greatest acts of bravery in battle. The decoration may be awarded to any member of Pakistan's armed forces, regardless of rank or branch of service, for extraordinary bravery in the face of the enemy. It is, therefore, in the same category as Great Britain's Victoria Cross. The decoration carries with it an award of Rs. 10,000, plus monthly allowances for junior commissioned officers of Rs. 50/month and for non-commissioned officers and men of Rs. 25/month. Recipients may use the abbreviation N.H. after their names. The decoration takes its name after the famous military hero, Ali Haider (1722-82 C.E.).
Established:
16 March 1957, by the President of Pakistan.


Recipients

Captain Muhammad Sarwar Shaheed (1910–July 27, 1948)

Major Tufail Muhammad Shaheed (1914–August 7, 1958)

Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed (1928–September 10, 1965)

Major Muhammad Akram Shaheed (1938–1971)

Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas Shaheed(Air Force) (1951–August 20, 1971)

Major Shabbir Sharif Shaheed (1943–December 6, 1971)

Jawan Sowar Muhammad Hussain Shaheed (1949–December 10, 1971)

Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz Shaheed (1944–December 17, 1971)

Captain Karnal Sher Khan Shaheed (1970–July 5, 1999)

Lalak Jan Shaheed (1967–July 7, 1999)



2.Hilal-i-Jurat



Hilal-i-Jurat is the second highest military award of Pakistan. It is admissible to officers of the three services for act of valour, courage or devotion to duty performed on land, at sea or in air.

The award carried the right to use the post nominal abbreviation H.J. This decoration is a rough equivalent to the British Distinguished Service Order.

Established: 16 March 1957, by the President of Pakistan.


3.Sitara-i-Jurat



Sitara-i-Jurat, is the 3rd highest Military medal of Pakistan. It is admissible to all ranks for gallant and distinguished service in combat. It is normally awarded to officers /junior commissioned officers.

The award carried the right to use S.J. as a post nominal abbreviation. Junior Commissioned Officers were eligible to receive a monthly allowance of Rs. 30. The decoration is roughly comparable to the British Military Cross.
Established: 16 March 1957, by the President of Pakistan.


4.Tamgha-i-Jurat



Tamgha-i-Jurat, is the 4th highest Military medal of Pakistan. It is admissible to all ranks for gallantry and distinguished services in combat.

The award carried the right to use the post nominal abbreviation T.J. and, for non-commissioned officers and enlisted men, a monthly allowance of Rs. 15. The decoration is roughly comparable to the British Distinguished Conduct Medal.
Established: 16 March 1957, by the President of Pakistan.


5.Sitara-i-Basalat and Tamgha-i-Basalat



Awarded to all ranks of the Pakistani military for valor, courage, or devotion to duty while not in combat. The award was originally established as the Tamgha-i-Basalat, Class I and Class II. The name was later altered. It is not clear what changes in design - if any.
Established: 16 March 1957, by the President of Pakistan .


Civil Awards

According to the Article 259(2) of the Constitution of Pakistan 1973, along with the Decorations Act 1975, the President of Pakistan confers civil awards on Pakistani citizens in recognition of gallantry, or distinction in academics, sports, or nursing.

The scope of the awards is as follows:

*A Gallantry means an act of bravery, heroism, courage and the rendering of dedicated services with selfless devotion in human rights and public service.

*Academic distinction includes:

Research, achievement or performance in Medicine, Science, Engineering, Technology, Philosophy, History, Literature or the Arts, and

*An invention of national importance.

In addition, the President’s Awards for Pride of Performance can be conferred for outstanding achievements in the fields of Art, Literature, Science,Sports and Nursing.

Citizens of Pakistan are eligible for awards in the Order of Shuja’at, Imtiaz and President’s Awards for Pride of Performance while foreign nationals can be given civil awards in any Order for eminence and outstanding services to Pakistan in a significant field of activity.

The announcement of civil awards is generally made once a year on Independence Day, 14th of August, and their investiture takes place on the following Pakistan Day, 23rd of March.


Pakistan Civil Awards, instituted in 1958, comprise following five Orders.

1.The Order of Pakistan
2.The Order of Shuja’at
3.The Order of Imtiaz
4.The Order of Quaid-i-Azam
5.The Order of Khidmat


Each Order has four descending categories namely, Nishan, Hilal, Sitara and Tamgha. The seniority of the Awards, including the President’s Pride of Performance awards, is as follows:

01- Nishan-i-Pakistan
02- Nishan-i-Shuja’at
03- Nishan-i-Imtiaz
04- Nishan-i-Quaid-i-Azam
05- Nishan-i-Khidmat

06- Hilal-i-Pakistan
07- Hilal-i-Shuja’at
08- Hilal-i-Imtiaz
09- Hilal-i-Quaid-i-Azam
10- Hilal-i-Khidmat

11- Sitara-i-Pakistan
12- Sitara-i-Shuja at
13- Sitara-i-Imtiaz
14- President’s Award for Pride of Performance
15- Sitara-i-Quaid-i-Azam
16- Sitara-i-Khidmat

17- Tamgha-i-Pakistan
18- Tamgha-i-Shuja’at
19- Tamgha-i-Imtiaz
20- Tamgha-i-Quaid-i-Azam
21- Tamgha-i-Khidmat


Nishan-i-Pakistan

Awarded for the highest degree of service to the state. Established: 19 March 1957.

Nishan-i-Shujaat

Awarded for military and civilian acts of courage under circumstances of danger to oneself. In general, these are not acts of bravery performed under hostile fire or in combat situations. In very general terms, the decoration is similar to British's George Cross and George Medal.


Nishan-i-Imtiaz

Nishan-i-Imtiaz is the highest honor given to a civilian in Pakistan. Usually it is regarded as the highest award one can achieve in Pakistan as the top most award Nishan-e-Pakistan is awarded to the foreign Heads of States.

Nishan-i-Imtiaz, which translates as the sign of excellence, is an honour given by the Government of Pakistan to both the military and civilians. For those in the military it is given after distinguished service and is also the highest medal award that can be awarded to those at the rank of General.


Nishan-i-Quaid-i-Azam

Awarded for meritorious service to the state, both civilian and military. The decoration is named to commemorate the founder of the nation, Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.


Nishan-i-Khidmat

Awarded for general meritorious civilian service to the state. While not uniquely a civilian decoration, the Nishan-i-Khidmat essentially filled this niche, with the Tamgah-i-Khidmat serves as a military division.


Hilal-i-Imtiaz



Hilal-i-Imtiaz is the second highest honor given to a civilian or a military personnel in Pakistan.

Hilal-i-Imtiaz, which translates as the crescent of excellence, is an honour given by the Government of Pakistan to both the military and civilians. For those in the military it is given after distinguished service and is also the highest medal award that can be awarded to those at the rank of Major General/Lieutenant General.


Sitara-i-Imtiaz

Sitara-i-Imtiaz is the third highest honour given to a civilian or military personnel in Pakistan.

Sitara-i-Imtiaz, which translates as the star of excellence, is an honour given by the Government of Pakistan to both the military and civilians. For those in the military it is given after distinguished service and is also the highest medal award that can be awarded to those at the rank of Brigadier/Major General.


Tamgha-i-Imtiaz



Tamgha-i-Imtiaz , which translates as the medal of excellence, is fourth highest honour given by the Government of Pakistan to both the military and civilians. For those in the military it is given after distinguished service and is also the highest medal award that can be awarded to those at the rank of Colonel.


Pride of Performance

Pride of Performance is a civil award given by the Government of Pakistan to Pakistanis who did any respectable jobs in their fields. Established on 13th January 1983 by president Zia-Ul-Haq. It is awarded to a Pakistani nationals in recognition of notable achievement in the fields of art, science, literature, sports or nursing. This award does not have any particular standing in Pakistani civil decorations hierarchy, but is regarded as one of the highest honours in Pakistan. The award of the medal may be accompanied by a monetary award. The president of Pakistan reserves himself the right to confer the award, unaccompanied by a monetary award, upon persons who are not citizens of Pakistan.


Tamgha-i-Jamhuria / Republic Medal



Awarded to commemorate the inauguration of the Republic of Pakistan, 23 March 1956. Awarded to members of the Pakistani armed forces, police forces, selected civilian officials, and selected non-officials. The medal was also awarded in gold to heads of foreign delegations attending the inauguration ceremonies as official State representatives. Established: 16 March 1957, by the President of Pakistan.
__________________
 

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Pakistan

Pakistan






Official Name

Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Father of the Nation


Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)

National Poet

Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938)

Head of the State

General Pervez Musharraf, President

Head of Government

Mr. Yousaf Raza Gillani, Prime Minister

Capital

Islamabad


Area:


Total--------------------796,095 Sq. km.

Punjab-------------------205,344 Sq. km.

Sindh--------------------140,914 Sq. km.

North West Frontier Province--------74,521 Sq. km.

Balochistan--------------347,190 Sq. km.

Federally Administered Tribal Areas---27,220 Sq. km.

Islamabad (Capital)-------906 Sq. km.


Population:

153.96 million (E)


Administrative Setup

Pakistan is divided into four provinces viz., North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab , Sindh and Balochistan. The tribal belt adjoining NWFP is managed by the Federal Government and is named FATA i.e., Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas have their own respective political and administrative machinery, yet certain of their subjects are taken care of by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas. Provinces of Pakistan are further divided into Divisions and Districts.

Provinces------------Divisions----------------Districts

NWFP-------------------7----------------------24

Punjab------------------8----------------------34

Sindh-------------------5----------------------21

Balochistan
-------------6----------------------22

While FATA consist of 13 Areas/Agencies and Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas have 7 and 5 Districts respectively.


Religion

95% Muslims, 5% others.

Annual Per capital income

US $846

GDP

8.4%

Currency

Pak. Rupee.


Imports

Industrial equipment, chemicals, vehicles, steel, iron ore, petroleum, edible oil, pulses, tea.

Exports

Cotton, textile goods, rice, leather items carpets, sports goods, handi-crafts, fish and fish prep. and fruit.

Languages

Urdu (National) and English (Official)

Literacy rate

53%

Government

Parliamentary form

Parliament

Parliament consists of two Houses i.e., the Senate (Upper House) and the National Assembly (Lower House).
The Senate is a permanent legislative body and symbolises a process of continuity in the national affairs. It consists of 100 members. The four Provincial Assemblies, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Federal Capital form its electoral college.
The National Assembly has a total membership of 342 elected through adult suffrage (272 general seats, 60 women seats and 10 non-Muslim seats).

Pakistan National Flag

Dark green with a white vertical bar, a white crescent and a five-pointed star in the middle. The Flag symbolizes Pakistan 's profound commitment to Islam, the Islamic world and the rights of religious minorities.

National Anthem

Approved: in August, 1954

Verses Composed by:
Abdul Asar Hafeez Jullundhri

Tune Composed by: Ahmed G. Chagla

Duration: 80 seconds

State Emblem




The State Emblem consists of:

1. The crescent and star which are symbols of Islam.

2. The shield in the centre shows four major crops.

3. Wreath surrounding the shield represents cultural heritage.

4. Scroll contains Quaid's motto: Unity Faith, Discipline.

Pakistan 's Official Map

Drawn by Mian Mahmood Alam Suhrawardy (1920-1999).

National Flower

Jasmine.

National Tree

Deodar (Cedrus Deodara).

National Animal

Markhor.

National Bird

Chakor (Red-legged partridge).

Flora

Pine, Oak, Poplar, Deodar, Maple, Mulberry.

Fauna

The Pheasant, Leopard, Deer, Ibex, Chinkara, Black buck, Neelgai, Markhor, Marco-Polo sheep, Green turtles, River & Sea fish, Crocodile, Waterfowls.

Popular games

Cricket, Hockey, Football, Squash.

Tourist's resorts

Murree, Quetta , Hunza, Ziarat, Swat, Kaghan, Chitral and Gilgit.

Archaeological sites

Moenjo Daro, Harappa , Taxila, Kot Diji, Mehr Garh, Takht Bhai.

Major Cities

Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Multan and Sialkot.

Major Crops

Cotton, Wheat, Rice and Sugarcane.

Agricultural Growth Rate

7.5% in 2004-05.

Total cropped area

22.94 million hectares.

Industry

Textiles, Cement, Fertiliser, Steel, Sugar, Electric Goods, Shipbuilding.

Energy

Major sources:

Electricity ( Hydel, Thermal, Nuclear) Oil, Coal, and Liquid Petroleum Gas.

Power Generating Capacity:

19,389 MW

Health


Hospitals-----------------------916

Dispensaries--------------------4,600

Basic Health Units (BHUs)-------5,301

Maternity & Child Health Centres-------906

Rural Health Centres (RHCs)-----------552

Tuberculosis (TB) Centres-------------289

Hospital Beds-------------------99,908

Doctors (registered)------------113,206

Dentists (registered)------------6,127

Nurses (registered)-------------48,446

Paramedics---------------------23,559

Lady Health Workers------------6,741


Education


Primary Schools-----------------155,000

Middle Schools------------------28,728

High Schools--------------------16,100

Secondary Vocational Institutions-----------636

Arts & Science Colleges----------1,066

Professional Colleges-------------382

Universities----------------------51


Transport & Communication


Total length of roads

259, 758 km

Pakistan Railway network

7,791 km

Locomotives

580

Railway stations

781

Pakistan International Airlines

Covers 38 international and 24 domestic stations with a fleet of 49 planes.

Major Airports

8 (Islamabad , Karachi , Lahore , Quetta , Peshawar , Multan , Faisalabad and Gwadar).

Seaports

International

2 ( Karachi and Bin Qasim), Gwadar deep sear port.

Fish Harbors -Cum-Mini Ports

3(Minora, Gawadar, and Keti Bandar).

Communications


Post Offices--------------------12,170

Telephone connections---------5,052,000

Public Call Offices--------------217,597

Telegraph offices---------------299

Internet Connections-----------2 million

Mobile Phones------------------10,542,641


Employment


Total Labour force---------46.84 million

Employed Labour Force----43.22 million

Agriculture Sector---------18.60 million

Manufacturing & Mining sector--------5.96 million

Construction---------------2.52 million

Trade----------------------6.39 million

Transport------------------2.48 million

Others---------------------6.98 million

Media

Print Media (In accordance with Central Media List)

Dailies------------------540

Weeklies----------------444

Fortnightlies------------55

Monthlies---------------268

News Agencies

Official

APP

Private

PPI, NNI, On Line and Sana .

Electronic Media


TV Channels


State Owned

Pakistan Television Network (PTV) is a state owned television station which operates on both terrestrial & satellite.

*PTV

*PTV World

*PTV National - Regional Languages Channel

*PTV Bolan - Baluchi Language Channel

*AJK TV - Azad & Jammu Kashmir TV
 

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108,467
40,707
1,313
A n3st!
Educational

*Virtual University is also state owned and operate two channels.

*Virtual Television 1 (VTV 1)

*Virtual Television 2 (VTV 2)


Private


*Aaj TV

*ARY Digital

*ARY One World

*ATV

*Business Plus

*Channel G - Music Channel

*Dhoom TV

*Filmazia - Pakistani Movies Channel

*Fortune TV

*Geo TV

*Geo News

*Hum TV

*Indus Music

*Indus Plus/Indus News

*Indus Vision

*Labbaik TV

*Mashriq TV

*nVibe

*TV One

*QTV

*Roshni TV

*Rung TV

*Sun Biz - Business Channel

*TV 2 Day

*The City Channel

*The Musik

*Uni Plus


Regional

*KTN - Sindhi Language Channel

*Sindh TV - Sindhi Language Channel

*Kashish TV - Sindhi Language Channel

*Apna Channel - Punjabi Language Channel

*Ravi TV - Punjabi Language Channel

*Punjab TV - Punjabi Language Channel

*AVT Khyber - Pushto Language Channel

International

*HBO - Part of ARY Digital Network

*Fashion TV Pakistan

*Al-Jazeera Urdu

*CNBC Pakistan

*Cartoon Network

*STAR Plus

*Ten Sports


Pakistani radio channels

Sindh

*Radio Pakistan AM820 Karachi

*Radio Pakistan AM1000 Hyderabad

*Radio Pakistan AM1000 Larkana

*Radio Pakistan AM920 Khairpur

*City FM89 Karachi

*RadioActive FM96 Karachi

*FM100 Karachi

*FM101 Karachi

*FM101 Hyderabad

*APNA Radio FM107 Karachi

*HUM FM106 Karachi

*HUM FM106 Sukkar


Punjab

*Radio Pakistan AM630 Lahore

*Radio Pakistan AM1080 Lahore

*Radio Pakistan AM1260 Rawalpindi

*Radio Pakistan AM792 Rawalpindi

*Radio Pakistan FM92 Rawalpindi

*Radio Pakistan AM1030 Multan

*Radio Pakistan AM1320 Bahawalpur

*Radio Pakistan AM1476 Faisalabad ( Lyallpur )

*City FM89 Lahore

*City FM89 Rawalpindi

*City FM89 Faisalabad ( Lyallpur )

*FM100 Lahore

*FM101 Lahore

*FM101 Faisalabad ( Lyallpur )

*FM101 Sialkot

*FM101 Sargodha

*FM95 Mianwali

*MAST FM103 Lahore

*Radio Buraq FM104 Sialkot

*AWAZ Radio FM105 Gujrat

*AWAZ Radio FM106 Gujranwala

*HUM FM106.2 Lahore


Islamabad Capital Territory

*Radio Pakistan AM585 Islamabad

*City FM89 Islamabad

*FM99 Power Radio Islamabad

*FM100 Islamabad

*FM101 Islamabad

*HUM FM106.2 Islamabad


Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP)

*Radio Pakistan AM540 Peshawar

*Radio Pakistan AM1400 Dera Ismail Khan

*Radio Pakistan AM1600 Abbottabad

*Radio Pakistan AM1580 Chitral

*UPesh Radio FM107 Peshawar

*Radio Buraq FM104 Peshawar

*Radio Buraq FM104 Mardan

*FM101 Peshawar

*FM101 Bannu

*FM101 Kohat


Balochistan

*Radio Pakistan AM750 Quetta

*Radio Pakistan AM1580 Sibi

*Radio Pakistan AM560 Khuzdar

*Radio Pakistan AM1580 Turbat

*FM101 Quetta

*FM101 Gwadar


Banks



Central Bank

State Bank of Pakistan

Nationalized Scheduled Banks

*First Woman Bank Ltd.

*National Bank of Pakistan


Specialized Banks

*Zari Taraqiati Bank (ZTBL)

*Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan

*Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd.


Private Scheduled Banks

*Askari Commercial Bank Limited

*Bank Al-Falah Limited

*Bolan Bank Limited

*Faysal Bank Limited

*Bank Al-Habib Limited

*Metropolitan Bank Limited

*KASB Commercial Bank Limited

*Prime Commercial Bank Limited

*PICIC Commercial Bank Limited

*Soneri Bank Limited

*Union Bank Limited

*Meezan Bank Limited

*Saudi-Pak Commercial Bank Limited

*Crescent Commercial Bank Limited

*Dawood Bank Limited

*NDLC-IFIC Bank Limited (NIB)

*Allied Bank of Pakistan Limited

*United Bank Limited

*Habib Bank Limited

*SME Banks


Foreign Banks

*ABN Amro Bank N.V

*Albaraka Islamic Bank BSC (EC)

*American Expresss Bank Limited

*Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi Limited

*Citibank N.A

*Deutsche Bank A.G.

*Habib Bank A.G. Zurich

*Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corp Limited

*Oman International Bank S.O.A.G

*Rupali Bank Limited

*Standard Chartered Bank Limited


Development Financial Institutions

*Pakistan Industrial Credit and Investment Corp. Limited

*Pak Kuwait Investment Company (Pvt) Limited

*Pak Libya Holding Company (Pvt) Limited


Investment Banks

*Crescent Investment Bank Limited

*First International Investment Bank Limited

*Atlas Investment Bank Limited

*Security Investment Bank Limited

*Fidelity Investment Bank Limited

*Prudential Investment Bank Limited

*Islamic Investment Bank Limited

*Asset Investment Bank Limited

*Al-Towfeek Investment Bank imited

*Jahangir Siddiqui Investment Bank Limited

*Franklin Investment Bank Limited

*Orix Investment Bank (Pak) Limited


Famous Mountain Peaks


Peaks--------------------Height--------------------World Rating

K-2 (Chagori)-------------8616 m----------------------2nd

Nanga Parbat-------------8125 m----------------------8th

Gasherbrum -I------------8068 m----------------------11th

Broad Peak---------------8065 m----------------------12th

Gasherbrum-II------------8047 m----------------------14th

Gasherbrum-III-----------7952 m----------------------15th

Gasherbrum-IV-----------7925 m----------------------16th

Disteghil Sar-------------7885 m-----------------------20th

Kunyang Kish------------7852 m-----------------------22nd

Masherbrum (NE)--------7821 m-----------------------24th

Rakaposhi---------------7788 m-----------------------27th

Batura I----------------7785 m------------------------28th

Kanjut Sar-------------7760 m------------------------29th

Saltoro Kangri----------7742 m------------------------33rd

Trivor------------------7720 m------------------------36th

Tirich Mir---------------7708 m------------------------41st


Famous Mountain Passes


Location------------------------Province

The Khyber Pass-----------------NWFP

The Kurram Pass-----------------FATA

The Tochi Pass------------------FATA

The Gomal Pass-----------------NWFP

The Bolan Pass-----------------Balochistan

The Lowari Pass----------------Chitral (NWFP)

The Khunjrab Pass--------------Northern Areas


Rivers

Name----------------------------Length

The Indus-----------------------2,896 km

Jhelum--------------------------825 km

Chenab-------------------------1,242 km

Ravi----------------------------901 km

Sutlej---------------------------1,551 km

Beas (tributary of Sutlej )--------398 km


Famous Glaciers

Name--------------------------Length

Siachin-------------------------75 km

Batura--------------------------55 km

Baltoro--------------------------65 km


Deserts


Name-----------------------Location/Province

Thar----------------------------Sindh

Cholistan------------------------Punjab

Thal-----------------------------Punjab


Lakes

Name---------------------------Location/Province

Manchar-----------------------Sindh

Keenjar------------------------Sindh

Hanna-------------------------Balochistan

Saif-ul-Maluk-------------------NWFP

Satpara------------------------Northern Areas

Kachura------------------------Northern Areas


Major Dams

Name---------------------------Location/Province

Mangla Dam---------------------Punjab

Tarbela Dam---------------------NWFP

Warsak Dam---------------------NWFP[DOUBLEPOST=1358390147][/DOUBLEPOST]
nice sharing sisoooooooooooooooo
thanx IC :)
IC aap daikh k btaiyega post number 68 may saare images display ho rhe hain ya kuch broken hain?[DOUBLEPOST=1358390174][/DOUBLEPOST]National Anthem of Pakistan





The National Anthem of Pakistan approved by the Government in August 1954.However, the music for the anthem had been composed in 1950 and had been used on several occasions before official adoption. It is a harmonious rendering of a three-stanza composition with a tune based on eastern music but arranged in such a manner that it can be easily played by foreign bands. The Anthem is evocative in spirit, extolling Pakistan as the centre of faith and freedom, a land of beauty and strength drawn from the people and the country. The words touch upon the various facts of national life, with an invocation for integrity of Pakistan. The Verses of the Anthem have been composed by a renowned poet of Pakistan, Abul Asar Hafeez Jallundhri; while the tune has been composed by Ahmed G. Chagla, the well known musician and composer.


Composition:


At independence, on August 14, 1947, Pakistan did not have a national anthem. When the flag was hoisted at the independence ceremony it was accompanied by the song, "Pakistan Zindabad, Azadi Paendabad". The flag itself had only been approved by the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan three days earlier. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, asked Lahore-based Hindu writer, Jagannath Azad on August 9, 1947 to write a national anthem for Pakistan in five days. Jinnah may have done this to promote a more secular idealism for Pakistan. The anthem written by Azad was quickly approved by Jinnah, and it was played on Radio Pakistan.Azad's work remained as Pakistan’s national anthem for approximately eighteen months.

In early 1948, A. R. Ghani from Transvaal, South Africa, offered two prizes of five thousand rupees each for the poet and composer of a new national anthem. The prizes were announced through a Government press note published in June 1948. In December 1948, a National Anthem Committee (NAC) was formed, initially chaired by the Information Secretary, Sheikh Muhammad Ikram. Committee members included several politicians, poets and musicians such as Abdur Rab Nishtar, Ahmed Chagla and Hafeez Jullundhri. The committee had some difficulty at first in finding suitable music and lyrics.

In 1950, the impending state visit of the Shah of Iran, resulted in the Government asking the NAC to submit an anthem without delay. The committee chairman, Federal Minister for Education, Fazlur Rahman, asked several poets and composers to write lyrics but none of the submitted works were deemed suitable. The NAC also examined several different tunes and eventually selected the one presented by Chagla and submitted it for formal approval. Chagla produced the musical composition in collaboration with another committee member and assisted by the Pakistan Navy band.

The anthem without lyrics was performed for Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and later for the National Anthem Committee on August 10, 1950. Although it was approved for playing during the visit of the Shah, official recognition was not given until August 1954. The anthem was also played during the Prime Minister's visit to the United States. The NAC distributed records of the composed tune amongst prominent poets, who responded by writing and submitting several hundred songs for evaluation by the NAC. Eventually, the lyrics written by Jullundhri were approved and the new national anthem was first played properly on Radio Pakistan on August 13, 1954. Official approval was announced by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting on August 16, 1954. The composer Chagla had however died in 1953, before the new national anthem was officially adopted. In 1955 there was a performance of the national anthem involving eleven major singers of Pakistan including Ahmad Rushdi.


Initial version:

Information on the first anthem by Azad is very sparse. The lines presented below, were originally quoted by the Dawn (newspaper).

اے سرزمین پاک
زرے تیرے ہیں آج
ستاروں سے تابناک
روشن ہیں کہکشاں سے کہیں
آج تیرى خاک




Translation:

O land of Pakistan,
Each particle of yours
Is being illuminated by stars.
Brighther than the galaxies by far
Are today your camels.



Present anthem:

The music composed by Chagla reflects his background in both eastern and western music. The lyrics are written in highly Persianised Urdu, even using Persian grammar. Every word in the entire anthem is of Persian or Arabic origin, with the one exception "ka", having purely Urdu origins.The anthem lasts for 1 minute and 20 seconds, and uses twenty one musical instruments and thirty eight different tones.






English translation of anthem:

Blessed be the sacred Land
Happy be the bounteous realm
Symbol of high resolve
Land of Pakistan
Blessed be thou citadel of faith

The order of this sacred land
Is the might of the brotherhood of the People
May the nation, the country, and the state
Shine in glory everlasting
Blessed be the goal of our ambition

This Flag of the Crescent and Star
Leads the way to progress and perfection

Interpreter of our past, glory of our present
Inspiration of our future
Symbol of Almighty's protection
 

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banks and financial instites in PAKISTAN

Banks State & Private


1. State Bank of Pakistan
2. First Women Bank Limited
3. National Bank of Pakistan
4. Allied Bank of Pakistan, Karachi
5. Arif Habib Bank Limited, Karachi –
6. Askari Bank, Rawalpindi
7. Atlas Bank, Karachi
8. Bank AL Habib, Karachi
9. Bank Alfalah, Karachi
10. BankIslami Pakistan Limited, Karachi
11. Crescent Commercial Bank, Karachi
12. Faysal Bank, Karachi
13. Habib Bank, Karachi
14. Habib Metropolitan Bank, Karachi
15. JS Bank
16. KASB Bank, Karachi
17. Muslim Commercial Bank (MCB), Islamabad
18. Mybank Limited, Karachi
19. NIB Bank, Karachi
20. PICIC Commercial Bank, Karachi
21. Saudi Pak Non-Commercial Bank, Karachi
22. Soneri Bank, Karachi
23. United Bank, Karachi
24. Bank Of Punjab, Lahore

Foreign banks

1. Abn Amro Bank, limited Pakistan
2. Albaraka Islamic Bank BSC(EC), Lahore
3. American Express Bank Limited, Karachi
4. Mitsubishi Limited, Karachi
5. Citibank, Karachi
6. Deutsche Bank AG, Karachi
7. Habib Bank AG Zurich, Karachi
8. Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, Karachi
9. Oman International Bank SOAG, Karachi
10. Standard Chartered Bank Limited, Karachi
11. Barclay Bank, Karachi


Development financial institutions

1. Pakistan Industrial Credit and Investment Corp Limited, Karachi
2. Pak Kuwait Investment Company Limited, Karachi
3. Pak Libya Holding Company Limited, Karachi
4. Pak-Oman Investment Company Limited, Karachi
5. Saudi Pak Industrial and Agricultural Investment Company (Pvt) Limited, Islamabad
6. House Building Finance Corporation, Karachi
7. Investment Corporation of Pakistan, Karachi
8. National Development Finance Corporation, Karachi

Specialized banks


1. Industrial Development Bank
2. Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank
3. SME Bank
4. Zarai Taraqiati Bank

Investment banks


1. Al-Towfeek Investment Bank Limited
2. Asset Investment Bank Limited
3. Atlas Investment Bank Limited
4. Crescent Investment Bank Limited
5. Escorts Investment Bank Limited
6. First International Investment Bank Limited
7. Fidelity Investment Bank Limited
8. Franklin Investment Bank Limited
9. Islamic Investment Bank Limited
10. Jahangir Siddiqui Investment Bank Limited
11. Orix Investment Bank (Pakistan) Limited
12. Prudential Investment Bank Limited
13. Trust Investment Bank Limited

Micro finance banks

1. The First Micro Finance Bank Limited
2. Khushali Bank
3. Karakuram Bank
4. Network Micro Finance Bank
5. Pak Oman Micro Finance Bank
6. Rozgar Micro Finance Bank, Karachi
7. Tameer Microfinance Bank Limited

Islamic banks

1. Dawood Islamic Bank Limited
2. Dubai Islamic Bank
3. Meezan Bank
4. AlBaraka Islamic Bank
5. BankIslami Pakistan Limited
6. Emirates Global Islamic Bank[DOUBLEPOST=1358390204][/DOUBLEPOST]Islamabad


Islāmabād (Meaning "Abode of Islam") is the capital of Pakistan, and is the tenth largest city in Pakistan. The Rawalpindi/Islamabad metropolitan area is the third largest in Pakistan with a population of over 4.5 million inhabitants, 1.5 million in Islamabad and three million in Rawalpindi.

Location:
Islamabad is located in the Potohar Plateau in the north of the country, within the Islamabad Capital Territory. The region has historically been a part of the crossroads of Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province, Margalla pass being a gateway to the North-West Frontier Province.

The city was built during the 1960s to replace Karachi as Pakistan's capital. However the capital was not moved directly from Karachi to Islamabad but first moved from Karachi to Rawalpindi then to Islamabad. The development of the country was focused on Karachi and President Ayub Khan wanted it to be equally distributed.

Islamabad is one of the most well-planned and green cities in South Asia. The city is well-organized and divided into different sectors and zones. Islamabad is also home to the Faisal Masjid which is well known for its architecture and immense size.

History

Early History
The relatively young city of Islamabad has over thousands of years of history in its record books. Islamabad Capital Territory, located in the Pothohar Plateau, is regarded to be one of the earliest sites of human settlement in Asia. Situated at one end of the Indus Valley Civilization, this area was the first habitation of the Aryan community from Central Asia. Islamabad was one of the routes though which the armies from North and North West passed to invade Indian Subcontinent. Many great armies such as those of Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan, Timur and Nader Shah have used this route on their way to Indian Subcontinent. Relics and human skulls have been found dating back to 5000 B.C. that show this region was home to Stone Age man who used the banks of Swaan River as their settlement.

Construction and Development
In 1958, a commission was constituted to select a suitable site for the National Capital with particular emphasis on location, climate, logistics and defence requirements along with other attributes. After extensive study, research and thorough review of various sites, the commission recommended the area Northeast of Rawalpindi. A Greek firm of architects Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis designed the master plan of the city which was triangular in shape, based on a Grid plan, with its apex towards the Margalla Hills.

17 major changes have been made in the Master Plan of Islamabad since the Greek architects Doxiadis Associates prepared it in 1960.
As Capital of Pakistan
When Pakistan was created in 1947, Karachi was the first capital. However, in 1960 Islamabad was constructed as a forward capital due to following reasons:
• Traditionally, the development was focused on the colonial centre of Karachi and President Ayub Khan wanted it to be equally distributed.
• Karachi was located at one end of the country and a capital which was easily accessible from all parts of the country was needed.
• Karachi was vulnerable to attacks from the sea while Islamabad, by contrast, is 750 miles inland and surrounded by mountains.
• A statement was needed to be made regarding Kashmir territories in the North, which were disputed with India.
• It was also closer to the GHQ which was, and still is, in Rawalpindi.
• The climate in Islamabad is favourable compared to Karachi.

Geography and Climate
The city is situated at the edge of the Pothohar plateau, south of the Margalla Hills. The modern capital Islamabad and the ancient Gakhar city of Rawalpindi stand side by side, displaying the country’s past and present. The area's micro-climate is regulated by three man-made lakes (Rawal, Simli and Khanpur Dam). The city overall has an extreme climate with hot summers with monsoon rains occurring during July and August, and fairly cold winters with sparse snowfall over the hills and sleet in the city. The weather ranges from a minimum of in January to a maximum of in June.

The modern city of Islamabad was envisaged as the new capital of Pakistan in the 1960s. In the mid 1960's the capital was shifted from Karachi to Islamabad, with most of the Government machinery shifting to Islamabad, along with the foreign embassies, though off-shoots of some of these remain even today in Karachi. The city was built as a planned city and has been divided into various sectors on a "grid". One axis is indexed numerically, the other alphabetically.

The surrounding areas of Islamabad include:
• East: Kotli Sattian/Murree
• North East: Murree / Kahuta
• North West: Taxila / Wah Cantt / Attock District
• South East: Gujar Khan / Kallar Syedian / Rawat / Mandrah
• South West: Rawalpindi
• West: North-West Frontier Province

The Islamabad area has surprising religious diversity of considerable antiquity. A shrine of Sufi Pir Mehar Ali Shah is at Golra while the shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Kazmi is in Nurpur Shahan. Saidpur Village hosts Hindu temples that have striking architecture and "Bethak of Zinda Pir" which is famous for the traditional lamps (diyas).

Islamabad/Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area
Islamabad and Rawalpindi are twin cities with just a highway separating them. Both cities, combined with Taxila and other adjoining areas, form the Islamabad/Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area with total population exceeding 5 million.

Tourism and Sightseeing
Islamabad is one of the few cities in Pakistan that is a planned city with a well-developed infrastructure due to which it made its entry into the list of the most well-planned cities in South Asia. This along with its picturesque location at the base of Margalla Hills make it a favourite destination with tourists. The sculpted gardens of Islamabad's Shakar Parian Hills, newly constructed National Monument, the fascinating Heritage Museum, and the huge marble Shah Faisal Mosque are the major highlights of the city.
Faisal Mosque was constructed on the suggestion of King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz. With the area of over 5000 square meters and a capacity of over 300,000 worshippers, it is the biggest mosque in Pakistan and one of the biggest in the world.

The newly constructed Lake View Park alongside Rawal Lake has become a favourite picnic spot in the city.

The city's pleasant climate has enabled the introduction of many exotic plants to the area. There is also much wildlife in the north in the Margalla hills, which have been turned into a national park. The Margalla hills are home to various species of wild life including a variety of exotic birds and carnivores such as the rare and presently endangered Margalla leopards.
Culture

Demographics
According to the 1998 census, Punjabis account for 71% of the population followed by the Muhajirs at around 10%, Pashtun at 10% and others (Sindhis, Balochis, Kashmiris etc) at 9%. The city is also host to many foreigners from around the globe and families of dignitaries.

The main language spoken in Islamabad is Urdu which is predominantly used within the city due to an ethnic mix of populations. English, being the official language of Pakistan is also commonly understood. Other languages include Punjabi, Pashto and Pothohari.

Architecture
Islamabad's architecture walks a tight-rope between modernity and tradition. The Saudi-Pak Tower is a good example of the combination of modern and traditional styles into one building. The beige-coloured edifice is trimmed with blue tilework in Islamic tradition, and is one of Islamabad's tallest buildings.

Other examples of intertwined Islamic and modern architecture include Pakistan Monument and Faisal Mosque. The murals on the inside of large petals of Pakistan Monument are based on Islamic architecture, and were decorated by a team of artists led by Kausar Jahan and Zarar Haider Babri, who spent a total of 119,000 hours on the artwork.
The relatively unusual design of Shah Faisal Mosque fuses contemporary lines with the more traditional look of an Arab Bedouin's tent with large triangular prayer hall and four minarets. The mosque's architecture is a departure from the long history of South Asian Muslim architecture. However, in some ways it makes a bridge between Arabic, Turkish and Mughal architectural traditions.

One of the examples of modern architecture in Islamabad is the under construction Centaurus. The complex is designed by WS Atkins PLC, whose portfolio includes the Burj al-Arab and Jumeirah Beach Hotel in Dubai, and the Bahrain World Trade Centre in Bahrain.

Economy
Most of Pakistan's state-owned companies like PIA, PTV, PTCL, OGDCL etc. are based in Islamabad's Blue Area. The City is also home to many branches of Karachi-based companies, banks, TV channels etc. Headquarters of all major telecommunication operators; PTCL, Mobilink, Telenor, Ufone, China Mobile & others are located in Islamabad.
Islamabad Stock Exchange is Pakistan's third largest stock exchange after Karachi and Lahore.

Recently, Islamabad has seen an expansion of information and communications technology with the addition two Software Technology Parks which house numerous national and foreign technological and IT companies. Call centres for foreign companies have been targeted as another significant area of growth, with the government making efforts to reduce taxes by as much as 10% in order to encourage foreign investments in the IT sector.

Transport
Islamabad is connected to the major destinations around the world through an international airport called "Benazir Bhutto International Airport". All major cities and towns are accessible through regular trains and bus services running mostly from the neighboring city of Rawalpindi which is considered a gateway town between north and south. Lahore and Peshawar are linked to Islamabad through a network of modern and rapid motorways which has resulted in a significant reduction in traveling times between these cities. Rawalpindi and Islamabad are also connected through a network of local buses and mini vans. For more convenient traveling, a $2 taxi ride covers most urban areas within the twin cities metropolitan.

The Capital Development Authority (CDA) has intended to carry out a feasibility and reference design for a rapid mass transit system for the twin-cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. On April 5, 2007, Federal Minister for Railways Sheikh Rashid Ahmed said that a railway station would be built near the planned Islamabad Airport at Fateh Jang to facilitate passengers called "New Islamabad International Airport". The New Islamabad International Airport is a international airport that is being built to serve the city of Islamabad, Pakistan. The airport is located in Fateh Jang, which is 30 km south-west of the city. Construction of the airport began in April 2007, after a decade long postponement. It is expected to be completed and operational in approximately three years. It will then take all the commercial flights that are currently operating out of the Islamabad International Airport. The Airport will be named as "Gandhara International Airport" after the ancient Buddhist kingdom.Estimated to cost about $400 million, the new Airport facility, which is the first green-field airport in Pakistan, shall comprise a contemporary state-of-the-art passenger terminal building, control tower, runway with a provision of a secondary runway, taxiways, apron, cargo complex, and hangar together with all the necessary infrastructure and ancillary facilities. It would cater to the requirements of latest generation of modern passenger aircraft.

Civic Administration
In 1959, a site on the northwest of the newly independent Pakistan was chosen and named Islamabad. Doxiadis Associates of Athens were commissioned to design the master plan in 1960. Islamabad is located on an area of 909 sq.m at the foot of the Himalaya mountain range. An autonomous governmental body was established for the implementation of the master plan under the name The Capital Development Authority (CDA). The landscaping of Islamabad was carried out by Derek Lovejoy and Partners in collaboration with many other designers.
 

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Sectors
Islamabad is divided into eight zones: the diplomatic enclave, the commercial district, the educational sector, the industrial area and so on, each with its own shopping area and park. Each sector is identified by a letter of the Roman alphabet and a number, and covers an area of approximately 2 km x 2 km (1 x 1 mi). Each sector is further divided into 4 sub-sectors. The sectors currently in use are lettered from D to I.

Currently, there is only one D sector, D-12. Although this sector is underdeveloped with its development to be completed in 2008, it will be considered as one of the most beautiful sectors of Islamabad because of its location near the Margalla Hills. However, in the revised Master Plan, CDA has decided to develop new sectors including D-13 and D-14.

The E sectors are numbered from E-6 to E-18. Many foreigners and diplomatic personnel are housed in this sector. But with new revised Master Plan, CDA has decided to develop a park on the patterns of F-9 park in sector E-14. Sector E-8 and E-9 contain the campuses of three Defense universities Bahria University (Sector E-8), Air University (Sector E-9) and National Defence College (now National Defence University).

The F sectors are numbered F-5 through F-12. F-5 is an important sector for the software industry in Islamabad, as both of the two software technology parks are located here. The entire sector of F-9 is dedicated for the Fatima Jinnah Park. The Centaurus complex (including a 7 star plaza, 5 star hotel and apartments) will be one of the major landmarks of F-8.

The G sectors are numbered G-5 through G-16. Some important landmarks include the Convention Center, Serena Hotel and Center for Advance Studies in Engineering (CASE) in G-5, the Lal Mosque and Melody Market in G-6, the Karachi Company shopping center in G-9 (named after a construction company from Karachi who made one of the first flats in this area in and around 1978) and the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) hospital in G-8 which is the largest medical complex in the capital and is hence also known by the locals as simply the 'Complex Hospital.' The Institute is a national centre of excellence and tertiary referral centre. With its own helipad it was the focal point of rescue missions and the point of referral for the most seriously wounded in the Northern Areas earthquake of 2005.

The H sectors are numbered H-7 through H-12. The H sectors are mostly dedicated to educational and health institutions. Sector H-12 is allocated to National University of Science and Technology (NUST) for construction of its new campus.

The I sectors are numbered I-8 through I-18. Except for I-8, these sectors are primarily set aside as part of the industrial zone. Only Two sub-sectors of Sector I-9 and one sub-sector of sector I-10 is used as Industrial Area.
Sector I-11 is proposed site of a state-of-art Vegetable and Fruit Market. CDA has planned to relocate the operating Veg. and Fruit market from I-11 to Sangjani. Sector I-15 is a new sector for Low-income group. CDA is planning to set up Islamabad Railway Station in Sector I-18 and Industrial City in proposed sector I-17.

The road separating I sector from Rawalpindi is called I J Principal road.
Union Councils

There is no proper District Government setup in ICT but efforts are being made towards the establishment of a local Government system in the ICT, which is still not in place in ICT as local government systems exist in other parts of the country. In 2005, the Ministry of Interior divided the ICT into 40 union councils — 20 union councils in rural/urban areas of the ICT. However, the Union Council system is yet to be implemented. The 20 union councils each cover the following regions of the ICT (the name in brackets refers to each council's jurisdiction, named after a main town in the area covered by each council, e.g. Rewat or Tarnol):
• Union Council No. 1 (Rewat): Rewat, Bhangreel Kalan, Bhangreel Khurd, Kortara, Takht Pari, Shadi Dhamial, Mohra Amir, Sood Gangal, Mohri Khumbal, Sheikhpur, Hoon Dhamial, Chuchkal and Bhima Kanait.
• Union Council No. 2 (Humak): Humak, Kotha Kalan and Naizian
• Union Council No. 3 (Sihala): Sihala, Gagri, Mughal, Chak Kamidar, Nara Sayedan, Sandu, Chitroh, Herdogher, Jabi Gakhran, Ladhiot, Kangota, Sayedan, Jandala and Kangota Gujran.
• Union Council No. 4 (Koral): Koral, Lohi Bher, Choocha, Rakh Lohi Bher, Pagh, Panwal, Bora Bangial, Bukher, Khathreel, Dhaliala, Pind Dia, Paija, Darwala, Sher Dhamial, Pindi Malkan, Pindori Hathial, Pindori Sayedan, Bhimber Trar, Gohra Mast, Sigga, Channi Mahsu and Khan.
• Union Council No. 5 (Khana): Khana Dak, Gangal, Gandhian, Tarlai Khurd and Sodhar.
• Union Council No. 6 (Tarlai Kalan): Tarlai Kalan, Chaper Mir-Khanal, Tramri, Tamma, Gohra Sardar, Chatha Bakhtawar and Khardapur.
• Union Council No. 7 (Kirpa): Kirpa, Jhang Sayedan, Partal, Saknal, Panjgran, Frash and Ali Pur.
• Union Council No. 8 (Cherah): Cherah, Herno Thanda Pani and Ara.
• Union Council No. 9 (Tumair): Tumair, Kijnah, Sihali, New Simbli, Jandala, Jandgran, Garathian, Darkalai, Rakh Tumair A, Rakh Tumair B, Dakhian and Pind Begwal.
• Union Council No. 10 (Phulgran): Phulgran, Shahpur, Sakrila, Dohala, Bbbri Betha, Athal, Maira Begwal, Chattar, Karlot, Hotran, Kathar, Mangal, Chaniari, Rakh Maira A & B and Malot.
• Union Council No. 11 (Bhara Kau): Kot Hathial.
• Union Council No.12 (Malpur); Malpur, Shahdara (Malpur Rural), Jhang Bangial, Mandla, Subban, Mangial, Quaid-e-Azam University and Muslim Colony.
• Union Council No. 13 (Noorpur Shahan): Noor Pur Shahan, Ratta Hoter, Talhar, Gokina and Saidpur.
• Union Council No. 14 (Kuri at Chak Shehzad): Kuri, Rehara, Chak Shahzad, Majuhan, Mohrian, Gohra Baz, Mohra Jijan, Jagiot and Nogazi.
• Union Council No. 15 (Rawal Town): Mohra Noor, Rawal Tonw, Rawal Colony, Mochi Mohra, Sumbal Korak (Katchi Abadi) and Sumbal Korak.
• Union Council No. 16 (Sohan): Sohan, Kana Kak, Jaba Taili, Shakrial, Pindori, Sihana, Lakhwal, Chak Bera Sing, Kartal, Bohan, Dhoke Sharaf, Ojri Kalan & Khurd and Poona Faqiran.
• Union Council No. 17 (Golra): Golra, Maira Bairi, Baker Akku, Dharek Mori, Maira Sumbal Aku, Maira Sumbal Jafer, Dharmian (F-11), E-10 (Sihala), Badia Rustam and Khan.
• Union Council No. 18 (Shah Allah Ditta): Shah Allah Ditta, Seri Seral, Pind Sangral, Sara-e-Kharbooza, Johd, Siray Madhu, Bara Dari, Bakhar Fateh and Bakhsh.
• Union Council No. 19 (Jhangi Sayeda): Jhangi Sayedan, Nothia, Thala Sayedan and Chailo, Sheikhpur, Kak, Noon, Narala and Bokra.
• Union Council No. 20 (Tarnol): Bhadana Kalan, Tarnol, Pindi Parian, Naugazi, Dorey, Ahi Paswal, Sangjani and Bhadana Khurd.

Education
A large number of public and private sector educational institutes are present in Islamabad. The higher education institutes in the capital are either federally chartered or administered by private organizations and almost all of them are recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. High schools and colleges are either affiliated with the Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education or with the UK universities education boards (A/O Levels, IGCSE etc.). According to AEPM's (Academy of Educational Planning And Management, Ministry of Education) report, there are total 904 recognized institutions in Islamabad, out of which 30 are pre-primary, 2 are religious schools (Deeni Madaris/Mosques), 384 are primary, 157 are middle, 232 are high (10 years of education), 59 are higher secondary (12 years of education), 15 are inter and 25 are degree colleges. 7 teacher training institutes are also running in Islamabad with a total enrollment of 581,068 students and 491 teaching faculty .

The Gender Parity Index in Islamabad is 0.93 compared to 0.95 for Pakistan as a whole. There are 178 boys only institutes, 175 girls and 551 mixed institutes in the capital territory . Total enrollment of students in all categories is 273583, 139961 for boys and 133,622 for girls .

There are 17 recognized universities in Islamabad with a total enrollment of 279,820 students and 25,653 teachers . The world's largest university Allama Iqbal Open University is located in Islamabad. The two top engineering universities in Pakistan, Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences(PIEAS) and National University of Science and Technology (NUST) also have their headquarters in the capital. Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad is ranked the best university in Pakistan in general category. Other notable universities include Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technologhy , Fatima Jinnah Women University, a female only university, Hamdard University, the largest and the most popular private university of the country, National Defence University, Shifa College of Medicine, National University of Modern Languages, and Mohammad Ali Jinnah University.

In 2006-2007, the Federal Government spend a total of 54,523.637 million Rs. on the education sector out of which 25,830.670 million was developmental fund . This amount is 25.18% of the total educational budget spend in that year, which was 216,518.059 million Rs. The public expenditure on education as percentage of total government expenditure that year was 14.09% .

ref:
www.ireference.ca/search/Islamabad/
[DOUBLEPOST=1358390244][/DOUBLEPOST]Sufism in Pakistan

Hazrat Abdullah Shah Ghazi Rehmatullah Ell'aih



[DOUBLEPOST=1358390262][/DOUBLEPOST]Pakistan Flag


Pakistani flag is flown on the offices and official residences of VIPs when they are home.

Size of Flags:


For ceremonial occasions 21 x 14
18 x 12
10 x 6-2/3
9 x 6 1/4

For use over buildings 6 x 4
3 x 2

For cars 12 x 8

For tables 6 1/4 x 4 1/4

Occasions on which Pakistani Flag is to be Flown

* Pakistan Day (23rd March)

* Independence Day (14th August)

* Quaid-e-Azim s Birthday (25th December)

* Such other days as may be notified by the Government from time to time.

* Days when Flags at Half-mast

* Death anniversary of Allama Muhammad Iqbal (21st April)

* Death anniversary of Quaid-e-Azam (11th September)

* Death anniversary of Liaquat Ali Khan (16th October)

* Any other day notified by the Government.

* Flag to be Flown on Residences

The Pakistan Flag shall be flown on the official residences of the following VIPs when they are home:-


* The President and Prime Minister of Pakistan.

* Chairman of the Senate and Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan.

* Governors of the Provinces.

* Federal Ministers and other dignitaries entitled to the privileges of the Ministers of the Government of Pakistan.

* Chief Ministers and Ministers of Provinces.

* The Chief Election Commissioner.

* Deputy Chairman of the Senate / Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan.

* Speakers of the Provincial Assemblies.

* Diplomatic Representatives of Pakistan in foreign countries.

* Commissioners of Divisions, Deputy Commissioners and Political Agents.

Note:- The Pakistan Flag will be flown on the official residence of the President / Prime Minister alongside his personal standard.

Flag to be Flown on Motorcars

The following persons shall be entitled to fly the Pakistan Flag on their motor cars, vessels and aeroplanes, when the dignitaries themselves are seated: -


* The President of Pakistan.

* The Prime Minister of Pakistan.

* The Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan.

* The Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan.

* Chief Justice of Pakistan.

* The Governors of the Provinces.

* The Chief Ministers of the Provinces.

* Chief Justices of the High Courts.

Note:- The President / Prime Minister may fly two flags i.e., his personal flag in addition to the National Flag.

The Pakistan Flag ?

Explanation



NM (width of flag) is equal to 2/3rd of NZ (length of flag)

NX (white portion) is equal to 1/4th of NZ (length of flag)

A is the middle point of XY & KZ (diagonals)

YB is equal to 13/20th of YZ (width of flag)

AO (radius of outer arc of Crescent) is equal to 3/10th of YZ.

BT (radius of inner arc) is equal to 11/40th of YZ.

CL (radius of the circle surrounding the star) is equal to 1/10th of YZ.
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Flag of Pakistan and State emblem of Pakistan



The National Flag of Pakistan (Urdu: پاکستان کا قومی پرچم) was designed by Syed Amir-uddin Kedwaii and was based on the original flag of the Muslim League, which itself drew inspiration from the flag of the Sultanate of Delhi and the Mughal Empire in India. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on August 11, 1947, just three days before the independence of Pakistan on August 14, 1947.The flag is referred to in the national anthem as Parcham-e-Sitāra-o-Hilāl in Persian (lit. Flag of the Crescent and the Star). The flag comprises a dark green field, representing the Muslim majority of Pakistan, with a vertical white stripe in the hoist, representing religious minorities. In the centre is a white crescent moon and a five-pointed star, which symbolize progress and light respectively.The flag symbolizes Pakistan's commitment to Islam, the Islamic world, and the rights of religious minorities.The flag is flown on several important days of the year including Republic Day and Independence Day.


Design


The official design of the national flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly together with a definition of the features and proportions:

"A dark green rectangular flag in the proportion of length and width 3:2 with a white vertical bar at the mast, the green portion bearing a white crescent in the centre and a five-pointed white heraldic star. The size of the white portion being one-fourth the size of the flag, nearest the mast, the remainder three-fourths being dark green. The dimensions of the crescent and star are obtained as follows:

"Draw the diagonal from the top right hand corner to the bottom left corner of the green portion. On this diagonal establish two points 'A' and 'B'. Point 'A' at a distance equidistant from top right and bottom left hand corners of the green portion, i.e. the centre of the green portion. Point 'B' at a distance from the top right hand corner equal to 13/20th the width of the flag. With centre point 'A' and radius 1.1/4th the width of the flag describe a second arc. The enclosures made by these two arcs form the crescent. The dimensions of the five-pointed white heraldic star are determined by drawing a circle 1/10th the width of the flag. The circle surrounds the five points of the heraldic star. The star lies with one point on the diagonal at a point where the larger arc of the crescent, if completed, cuts the diagonal."

The Interior Ministry of Pakistan provides dimensions for flags in different circumstances:

* For ceremonial occasions. 21' x 14', 18' x 12', 10' x 6-2/3' or 9' x 6 1/4.
* For use over buildings. 6' x 4' or 3' x 2'.
* For cars 12" x 8".
* For tables 10 1/4" x 8 1/4".


Flag protocols

* No other flag must fly higher
* When displayed alongside provincial or corporate flags, the national flag must be higher
* When tied to a mast, it must be tied only at the left (at the beginning of the white bar) and left to fly freely without any obstruction
* Must not touch the ground or feet or anything unclean
* Must be raised at dawn and lowered at dusk (except on the Parliament of Pakistan, which is the only official building on which the flag is never lowered)
* Must not be marked with anything
* When raising: (i) must be saluted to by all uniformed personnel, (ii) others must stand in attention
* When displayed horizontally, the white strip must always be at the left, with green field on the right
* When displayed vertically, the white strip must always be at the top, with green field at the bottom
* Must not fly or be displayed upside down or with the crescent and star facing left
* Must not be displayed anywhere were it is likely to get dirty


Flag flying days

Date Position Reason
March 23 Full-mast Pakistan Day: Adoption of the Lahore Resolution (1940) and declaration of the Islamic Republic (1956)

April 21 Half-mast Death Anniversary of the National Poet, Muhammad Iqbal (1938)

August 14 Full-mast Independence Day (1947)

September 11 Half-mast Death Anniversary of the Father of the Nation, Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1948)

December 25 Full-mast Birthday of Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876)
Any other day notified by the Government



Use by public officials

The use of the national flag is regulated by the Pakistan Flag Rules, which were introduced in 2002 by Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali. The Rules are not available online but there have been instances of misuse such as officials using flags on their vehicles when they are not entitled to do so.The national flag is flown on the official residences and vehicles (cars, boats, planes) of the following public officials:

Office Flag on Official Residence Flag on Vehicles
The President of Pakistan[10] Yes YesY

The Prime Minister of Pakistan[10] Yes YesY

The Chairman of the Senate YesY YesY

The Speaker of the National Assembly YesY YesY

The Chief Justice of Pakistan YesY YesY

The Governors of the Provinces YesY YesY

Federal Ministers (and officials entitled to the privileges of Federal Ministers) YesY

The Chief Ministers of the Provinces YesY YesY

The Ministers of the Provinces YesY

The Chief Election Commissioner YesY

The Deputy Chairman of the Senate YesY

The Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly YesY

The Speakers of the Provincial Assemblies YesY

The Chief Justices of the High Courts YesY

Ambassadors and High Commissioners of Pakistan YesY YesY

Commissioners of Divisions, Deputy Commissioners and Political Agents Yes( Flag on Official Residence )


Awards and recognitions

* In August 2004, Pakistan unfurled a 340x510 (173,400 square foot) foot National flag. The country held the record for producing the world's largest flag. It was rolled out in National Stadium Karachi in 2004


source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_Pakistan



State emblem of Pakistan




The State Emblem of Pakistan was adopted in 1954. The emblem's green colour and the star and crescent at the top are symbols of Islam, the religion with which most Pakistani citizens identify. In the center is a quartered shield, with each quarter containing a major crop of Pakistan at the time of its adoption: cotton, jute, tea, and wheat. The floral wreath around the shield is Poet's Jasmine (the national flower) and represents the Mughal cultural heritage of Pakistan. The scroll at the bottom contains the national motto in Urdu, coined by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, which reads from right to left: (Urdu: ایمان ، اتحاد ، نظم) Iman, Ittehad, Nazm translated as "Faith, Unity, Discipline".

source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coat_of_arms_of_Pakistan[DOUBLEPOST=1358390480][/DOUBLEPOST]The floral emblem are the National symbols of the country constituting the nation-state such as the Poet's Jasmine (National flower of Pakistan) and Rhododendron the (State flower) and the Chinar (State tree) in the Regional state of Jammu and Kashmir (disputed territory), Deodar (National tree of Pakistan), Mango (National fruit of Pakistan),

Provincial floral emblems of Pakistan

The Provincial floral emblems of Pakistan are the symbols of the four constituting provinces of the nation-state.

• Islamabad Capital Territory - Common fig (Territorial tree) and the Rose (Territorial flower)

• Balochistan (Pakistan) - Date palm (Provincial tree) and Ephedra (genus) (Provincial flower)

• North-West Frontier Province - Juniperus squamata (Provincial tree) and Morina (Provincial flower)

• Punjab (Pakistan) - Dalbergia sissoo (Provincial tree) and Justicia adhatoda (Provincial flower)

• Sindh - Prosopis cineraria (Provincial tree) and Water hyacinth (Provincial flower[DOUBLEPOST=1358390584][/DOUBLEPOST]The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan

The Republic and its territories.

1. (1) Pakistan shall be Federal Republic to be known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, hereinafter referred to as Pakistan.
(2) The territories of Pakistan shall comprise-
(a) the Provinces of Baluchistan, the North-West Frontier, the Punjab and Sind;
(b) the Islamabad Capital Territory, hereinafter referred to as the Federal Capital;
(c) the Federally Administered Tribal Areas: and
(d) such States and territories as are or may be included in Pakistan, whether by accession or otherwise.
(3) (Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) may be law admit into the Federation new States or areas on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.)

Islam to be State religion [

2. Islam shall be the State religion of Pakistan.

The Objectives Resolution to form part of substantive provisions.

2A. The principles and provisions set out in the Objectives Resolution reproduced in the Annex are hereby made substantive part of the Constitution and shall have effect accordingly.

Elimination of exploitation.

3. The State shall ensure the elimination of all forms of exploitation and the gradual fulfilment of the fundamental principle, from each according to his ability to each according to his work.

Right of individuals to be dealt with in accordance with law, etc.

4. (1) To enjoy the protection of law and to be treated in accordance with law is the inalienable right of every citizen, wherever he may be, and of every other person for the time being within Pakistan.
(2) In particular-
(a) no action detrimental to the life, liberty, body, reputation or property of any person shall be taken except in accordance with law;
(b) no person shall be prevented from or be hindered in doing that which is not prohibited by law; and
(c) no person shall be compelled to do that which the law does not required him to do.

Loyalty to State and obedience to Constitution and law.

5. (1) Loyalty to the State is the basic duty of every citizen.
(2) Obedience to the Constitution and law is the (inviolable) obligation of every citizen wherever he may be and of every other person for the time being within Pakistan.

High treason


6. (1) Any person who abrogates or attempts or conspires to abrogate, subverts or attempts or conspires to subvert the Constitution by use of force or show of force or by other un-constitutional means shall be guilty of high treason.
(2) Any person aiding or abetting the acts mentioned in clause (1) shall likewise be guilty of high treason.
(3) (Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) shall by law provide for the punishment of persons found guilty of high treason.

Part II

Fundamental rights and Principles of Policy

Definition of the State


7. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, “the State” means the Federal Government, (Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), a Provincial Government, a Provincial Assembly, and such local or other authorities in Pakistan as are by law empowered to impose any tax or cess.

Chapter I

Fundamental Rights

Laws in consistent with or in derogation of fundamental rights to be void.


8. (1) Any law, or any custom or usage having the force of law, in so far as it is inconsistent with the rights conferred by this Chapter, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.
(2) The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights so conferred and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of such contravention, be void.
(3) The provisions of this Article shall not apply to-
(a) any law relating to members of the Armed Forces, or of the police or of such other forces as are charged with the maintenance of public order, for the purpose of ensuring the proper discharge of their duties or the maintenance of discipline among them; or;
(b) any of the-
(i) laws specified in the First Schedule as in force immediately before the commencing day or as amended by any of the laws specified in that Schedule;
(ii) other laws specified in Part I of the First Schedule;
and no such law nor any provision thereof shall be void on the ground that such law or provision is inconsistent with, or repugnant to, any provision of this Chapter.
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in paragraph (b) of clause(3), within a period of two years from the commencing day, the appropriate Legislature shall bring the laws specified in (part II of the First Schedule) into conformity with the rights conferred by this Chapter:
Provided that the appropriate Legislature may be resolution extend the said period of two years by a period not exceeding six months.
Explanation.-If in respect of any law (Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) is the appropriate Legislature, such resolution shall be a resolution of the National Assembly.
(5) The rights conferred by this Chapter shall not be suspended except as expressly provided by the Constitution.

Security of person.[/B]

9. No person shall be deprived of life or liberty save in accordance with law.

Safeguards as to arrest and detention

10. (1) No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest, nor shall he be denied the right to consult and be defended by a legal practitioner of his choice.
(2) Every person who is arrested and detained in custody shall be produced before a magistrate within a period of twenty -four hours of such arrest, excluding the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to the court of the nearest magistrate, and no such person shall be detained in custody beyond the said period without the authority of a magistrate.
(3) Nothing in clauses (1) and (2) shall apply to any person who is arrested or detained under any law providing for preventive detention.
(4) No law providing for preventive detention shall be made except to deal with persons acting in a manner prejudicial to the integrity, security or defence of Pakistan or any part thereof, or external affairs of Pakistan, or public order, or the maintenance of supplies or services, and no such law shall authorize the detention of a person for a period exceeding (three months) unless the appropriate Review Board has, after affording him an opportunity of being heard in person, reviewed his case and reported, before the expiration of the said period, that there is, in its opinion, sufficient cause for such detention, and, if the detention is continued after the said period of (three months), unless the appropriate Review Board has reviewed his case and reported, before the expiration of each period of three months, that there is, in its opinion, sufficient cause for such detention.
Explanation I.- In this Article, "the appropriate Review Board" means,-
(i) in the case of a person detained under a Federal law, a Board appointed by the Chief Justice of Pakistan and consisting of a Chairman and two other persons, each of whom is or has been a Judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court; and
(ii) in the case of a person detained under a Provincial law, a Board appointed by the Chief Justice of the High Court concerned and consisting of a Chairman and two other persons, each of whom is or has been a Judge of a High Court.
Explanation II.- The opinion of a Review Board shall be expressed in terms of the views of the majority of its members.
(5) When any person is detained in pursuance of an order made under any law providing for preventive detention, the authority making the order shall, (within fifteen days) from such detention, communicate to such person the grounds on which the order has been made, and shall afford him the earliest opportunity of making a representation against the order:
Provided that the authority making any such order may refuse to disclose facts which such authority considers it to be against the public interest to disclose.
(6) The authority making the order shall furnish to the appropriate Review Board all documents relevant to the case unless a certificate, signed by a Secretary to the Government concerned to the effect that it is not in the public interest to furnish any documents, is produced.
(7) Within a period of twenty-four months commencing on the day of his first detention in pursuance of an order made under a law providing for preventive detention, no person shall be detained in pursuance of any such order for more than a total period of eight months in the case of a person detained for acting in a manner prejudicial to public order and twelve months in any other case:
Provided that this clause shall not apply to any person who is employed by, or works for, or acts on instructions receive from, the enemy (or who is acting or attempting to act in a manner prejudicial to the integrity, security or defence of Pakistan or any part thereof or who commits or attempts to commit any act which amounts to an anti-national activity as defined in a Federal law or is a member of any association which has for its objects, or which indulges in, any such anti-national activity).
(8) The appropriate Review Board shall determine the place of detention of the person detained and fix a reasonable subsistence allowance for his family.
(9) Nothing in this Article shall apply to any person who for the time being is an enemy alien
 

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Slavery, forced labour, etc. prohibited.

11. (1) Slavery is non-existent and forbidden and no law shall permit or facilitate its introduction into Pakistan in any form.
(2) All forms of forced labour and traffic in human beings are prohibited.
(3) No child below the age of fourteen years shall be engaged in any factory or mine or any other hazardous employment.
(4) Nothing in this Article shall be deemed to affect compulsory service-
(a) by any person undergoing punishment for an offence against any law; or
(b) required by any law for public purpose:
Provided that no compulsory service shall be of a cruel nature or incompatible with human dignity.

Protection against retrospective punishment

12 (1) No law shall authorize the punishment of a person-
(a) for an act or omission that was not punishable by law at the time of the act or omission; or
(b) for an offence by a penalty greater than, or of a kind different from, the penalty prescribed by law for that offence at the time the offence was committed.
(2) Nothing in clause(1) or in Article 270 shall apply to any law making acts of abrogation or subversion of a Constitution in force in Pakistan at any time since the twenty-third day of March, one thousand nine hundred and fifty-six, an offence.

Protection against double punishment and self incrimination.

13 No person-
.(a) shall be prosecuted or punished for the same offence more than once; or
(b) shall, when accused of an offence, be compelled to be a witness against himself.

Inviolability of dignity of man, etc.

14. (1) The dignity of man and, subject to law, the privacy of home, shall be inviolable.
(2) No person shall be subjected to torture for the purpose of extracting evidence.

Freedom of movement, etc.

15. Every citizen shall have the right to remain in, and, subject to any reasonable restriction imposed by law in the public interest, enter and move freely throughout Pakistan and to reside and settle in any part thereof.

Freedom of assembly.

16. Every citizen shall have the right to assemble peacefully and without arms, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of public order.

Freedom of association.

17. (1) Every citizen shall have the right to form associations or unions, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of (sovereignty or integrity or Pakistan, public order or morality).
(2) Every citizen, not being in the service of Pakistan, shall have the right to form or be a member of a political party, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of the sovereignty or integrity of Pakistan 1or public order and such law shall provide that where the Federal Government declares that any political party has been formed or is operating in a manner prejudicial to the sovereignty or integrity of Pakistan, 2 or public order or , the Federal Government shall, within fifteen days of such declaration, refer the matter to the Supreme Court whose decision on such reference shall be final.
2Provided that no political party shall promote secretarian, ethnic, regional hatred or animosity, or be titled or constituted as a militant group or section
(3) Every political party shall account for the source of its funds in accordance with law.
(4) 3 Every Political Party shall, subject to law, hold intra-party election to elect its office-bearers and party leaders.
1Ins.by the legal Framework Order, 2002(C.E's o. No 24 of 2002), Art.3 and such.,
2 Proviso added ibid
2 New Cl. (4) added ibid.,

Freedom of trade, business or profession.

18. Subject to such qualifications, if any, as may be prescribed by law, every citizen shall have the right to enter upon any lawful profession or occupation, and to conduct any lawful trade or business:
Provided that nothing in this Article shall prevent-
(a) the regulation of any trade or profession by a licensing system; or
(b) the regulation of trade, commerce or industry in the interest of free competition therein; or
(c) the carrying on, by the Federal Government or a Provincial Government, or by a corporation controlled by any such Government, of any trade, business, industry or service, to the exclusion, complete or partial, of other persons.

Freedom of speech, etc.

19 Every citizen shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression, and there shall be freedom of the press, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of the glory of Islam or the integrity, security or defence of Pakistan or any part thereof, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, 1[commission of] or in relation to an offence.

Freedom to profess religion and to manage religious institutions.

20. Subject to law, public order and morality,-
(a) every citizen shall have the right to profess, practise and propagate his religion; and
(b) every religious denomination and every sect thereof shall have the right to establish, maintain and manage its religious institutions.

Safeguard against taxation for purposes of any particular religion.

21 No person shall be compelled to pay any special tax the proceeds of which are to be spent on the propagation or maintenance of any religion other than his own.

Safeguards as to educational institutions in respect of religion, etc.

22. (1) No person attending any educational institution shall be required to receive religious instruction, or take part in any religious ceremony, or attend religious worship, if such instruction, ceremony or worship relates to a religion other than his own.
(2) In respect of any religious institution, there shall be no discrimination against any community in the granting of exemption or concession in relation to taxation.
(3) Subject to law,
(a) no religious community or denomination shall be prevented from providing religious instruction for pupils of that community or denomination in any educational institution maintained wholly by that community or denomination; and
(b) no citizen shall be denied admission to any educational institution receiving aid from public revenues on the ground only of race, religion, caste or place of birth.
(4) Nothing in this Article shall prevent any public authority from making provision for the advancement of any socially or educationally backward class of citizens.

Provision as to property.


23. Every citizen shall have the right to acquire, hold and dispose of property in any part of Pakistan, subject to the Constitution and any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the public interest.

Protection of property rights.

24. (1) No person shall b e deprived of his property save in accordance with law.
(2) No property shall be compulsorily acquired or taken possession of save for a public purpose, and save by the authority of law which provides for compensation therefore and either fixes the amount of compensation or specifies the principles on and the manner in which compensation is to be determined and given.
(3) Nothing in this Article shall affect the validity of-
(a) any law permitting the compulsory acquisition or taking possession of any property for preventing danger to life, property or public health; or
(b) any law permitting the taking over of any property which has been acquired by, or come into the possession of, any person by any unfair means, or in any manner, contrary to law; or
(c) any law relating to the acquisition, administration or disposal of any property which is or is deemed to be enemy property or evacuee property under any law (not being property which has ceased to be evacuee property under any law); or
(d) any law providing for the taking over of the management of any property by the State for a limited period, either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of the property, or for the benefit of its owner; or
(e) any law providing for the acquisition of any class of property for the purpose of-
(i) providing education and medical aid to all or any specified class of citizens; or
ii) providing housing and public facilities and services such as roads, water supply, sewerage, gas and electric power to all or any specified class of citizens; or
(iii) providing maintenance to those who, on account of unemployment, sickness, infirmity or old age, are unable to maintain themselves; or
(f) any existing law or any law made in pursuance of Article 253
(4) The adequacy or otherwise of any compensation provided for by any such law as is referred to in this Article, or determined in pursuance thereof, shall not be called in question in any court.

Equality of citizens.

25. (1) All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of law.
(2) There shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex alone.
(3) Nothing in this Article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the protection of women and children.

Non-discrimination in respect of access to public places.

26. (1) In respect of access to places of public entertainment or resort, not intended for religious purposes only, there shall be no discrimination against any citizen on the ground only of race, religion, caste, sex, residence or place of birth.
(2) Noting in clause (1) shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.

Safeguard against discrimination in services.

27. (1) No citizen otherwise qualified for appointment in the service of Pakistan shall be discriminated against in respect of any such appointment on the ground only of race, religion, caste, sex, residence or place of birth:
Providing that, for a period not exceeding 1[forty] years from the commencing day, posts may be reserved for persons belonging to any class or area to secure their adequate representation in the service of Pakistan:
Provided further that, in the interest of the said service, specified posts or services may be reserved for members of either sex if such posts or services entail the performance of duties and functions which cannot be adequately performed by members of the other sex.
(2) Nothing in clause (1) shall prevent any Provincial Government, or any local or other authority in a Province, from prescribing, in relation to any post or class of service under that Government or authority, conditions as to residence in the Province, for a period not exceeding three years, prior to appointment under that Government or authority.
1 Subsituted and shall be deemed always to have been so substituted by the Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act 1999)s,2 for "[twenty]" which was previously subs. by P.O No 14 of 1985, Art 2 and sch., for "ten"

Preservation of language, script and culture.


28. Subject to Article 251 any section of citizens having a distinct language, script or culture shall have the right to preserve and promote the same and subject to law, establish institutions for that purpose.

Principles of Policy

29. (1) The Principles set out in this Chapter shall be known as the Principles of Policy, and it is the responsibility of each organ and authority of the State, and of each person performing functions on behalf of an organ or authority of the State, to act in accordance with those Principles in so far as they relate to the functions of the organ or authority.
(2) In so far as the observance of any particular Principle of Policy may be dependent upon resources being available for the purpose, the Principle shall be regarded as being subject to the availability of resources.
(3) In respect of each year, the President in relation to the affairs of the Federation, and the Governor of each Province in relation to the affairs of his Province, shall cause to be prepared and laid before the National Assembly or, as the case may be, the Provincial Assembly, a report on the observance and implementation of the Principles of Policy, and provision shall be made in the rules of procedure of the National Assembly or, as the case may be, the Provincial Assembly, for discussion on such report.

Responsibility with respect to Principles of Policy.

30. (1) The responsibility of deciding whether any action of an organ or authority of the State, or of a person performing functions on behalf of an organ or authority of the State, is in accordance with the Principles of Policy is that of the organ or authority of the State, or of the person, concerned.
(2) The validity of an action or of a law shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not in accordance with the Principles of Policy, and no action shall lie against the State, any organ or authority of the State or any person on such ground.
 

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Islamic way of life.

31. (1) Steps shall be taken to enable the Muslims of Pakistan, individually and collectively, to order their lives in accordance with the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam and to provide facilities whereby they may be enabled to understand the meaning of life according to the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
(2) The State shall endeavor, as respects the Muslims of Pakistan,-
(a) to make the teaching of the Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language and to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Holy Quran;
(b) to promote unity and the observance of the Islamic moral standards; and
(c) to secure the proper organization of Zakat,(usher) auqaf and mosques.

Promotion of local Government institutions.

32. The State shall encourage local Government institutions composed of elected representatives of the areas concerned and in such institutions special representation will be given to peasants, workers and women.

Parochial and other similar prejudices to be discouraged.

33. The State shall discourage parochial, racial, tribal sectarian and provincial prejudices among the citizens.

Full participation of women in national life.

34. Steps shall be taken to ensure full participation of women in all spheres of national life.

Protection of family, etc.

35. The State shall protect the marriage, the family, the mother and the child.

Protection of minorities.

36. The State shall safeguard the legitimate rights and interest of minorities, including their due representation in the Federal and Provincial services.

Promotion of social justice and eradication of social evils.

37. The State shall-
(a) promote, with special care, the educational and economic interests of backward classes or areas;
(b) remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period;
(c) make technical and professional education generally available and higher education equally accessible to all on the basis of merit;
(d) ensure inexpensive and expeditious justice;
(e) make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work, ensuring that children and women are not employed in vocations unsuited to their age or sex, and for maternity benefits for women in employment;
(f) enable the people of different areas, through education, training, agricultural and industrial development and other methods, to participate fully in all forms of national activities, including employment in the service of Pakistan;
(g) prevent prostitution, gambling and taking of injurious drugs, printing, publication, circulation and display of obscene literature and advertisements;
(h) prevent the consumption of alcoholic liquor otherwise than for medicinal and, in the case of non-Muslims, religious purposes; and
(i) decentralize the Government administration so as to facilitate expeditious disposal of its business to meet the convenience and requirements of the public.

Promotion of social and economic well-being of the people.

38. The State shall-
(a) secure the well-being of the people, irrespective of sex, caste, creed or race, by raising their standard of living, by preventing the concentration of wealth and means of production and distribution in the hands of a few to the detriment of general interest and by ensuring equitable adjustment of rights between employers and employees, and landlords and tenants;
(b) provide for all citizens, within the available resources of the country, facilities for work and adequate livelihood with reasonable rest and leisure;
(c) provide for all persons employed in the service of Pakistan or otherwise, social security by compulsory social insurance or other means;
(d) provide basic necessities of life, such as food, clothing, housing , education and medical relief, for all such citizens, irrespective of sex caste, creed or race, as are permanently or temporarily unable to earn their livelihood on account of infirmity, sickness or unemployment;
(e) reduce disparity in the income and earnings of individuals, including persons in the various classes of the service of Pakistan; and
(f) eliminate riba as early as possible.

Participation of people in Armed Forces

39. The State shall enable people from all parts of Pakistan to participate in the Armed Forces of Pakistan.

Strengthening bonds with Muslims world and promoting international peace.
.
40. The State shall endeavor to preserve and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based on Islamic unity, support the common interests of the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America, promote international peace and security, foster goodwill and friendly relations among all nations and encourage the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means.

The President.

41. (1) There shall be a President of Pakistan who shall be the Head of State and shall represent the unity of the Republic.
(2) A person shall not be qualified for election as President unless he is a Muslim of not less than forty-five years of age and is qualified to be elected as member of the National Assembly.
(3) The President to be elected after the expiration of the term specified in clause (7) shall be elected in accordance with the provisions of the Second Schedule by the members of an electoral college consisting of-
(a) the members of both Houses; and
(b) the members of the Provincial Assemblies.
(4) Election to the office of President shall be held not earlier than sixty days and not later than thirty days before the expiration of the term of the President in office:
Provided that, if the election cannot be held within the period aforesaid because the National Assembly is dissolved, it shall be held within thirty days of the general election to the Assembly.
(5) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President shall be held not later than thirty days from the occurrence of the vacancy:
Provided that, if the election cannot be held within the period aforesaid because the National Assembly is dissolved, it shall be held within thirty days of the general election to the Assembly.
(6) The validity of the election of the President shall not be called in question by or before any court or other authority.
1 (7) The Executive of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan-
(a) shall relinquish the office of Chief Executive on such day as he may determine in accordance with the judgment of the Supreme Court of Pakistan of 12the May 2000; and
(b) having received the democratic mandate to serve the the nation as President of Pakistan for a period of five years shall, relinquishing the office of Chief Executive, not with the standing anything contained in this Article or Articles 43 or any other provisions of the Constitution or any other law for the time being in force, assume the office of President of Pakistan forthwith and shall hold office of term of five years under the Constitution, and other provision of the Constitution shall apply accordingly.;
2Provided that, paragraph d of clause (1) of Article 63 shall become operative on and from the 31st day of December, 2004."
3(8) Without prejudice to the provisions of the clause (7), any member or members of a House of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or of Provincial Assembly, individually or jointly, may, not later than thirty days from the commencement of the Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 2003, move a resolution for vote of confidence for further affirmation of the President in office by majority of the members present and voting, by division or any other method as prescribed in the rules made by the Federal Government Under clause (9), of the electoral college consisting of members of both Houses of Majis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and the Provincial Assemblies, in a special session of each House of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and of each Provincial Assembly summoned for the purpose, and the vote of confidence having been passed, the President, notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution or judgment of any court, shall be deemed to be elected to hold office for a term of five years under the Constitution, and the same shall not be called in question in any court or forum on any ground whatsoever:
(9) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution or any other law for the time being in force, the proceedings for the vote of confident referred to in clause(8) shall be regulated and conducted by the Chief Election Commission in accordance with such procedure and the votes shall be counted in such manner as may be prescribed by the rules framed by the Federal Government:
Provided that clauses (8) and (9) shall be valid only for the forthcoming vote of confidence for the current term of the President in office."
1 Subs. by the Legal Framework Order, 2002(C.E's.O.No.24 of 2002), Art.3 and Sch, for cl.(7), which was previously amended by P.O.No 14 of 1985, Art.2 and Sch.
2.Sub an added by Act No III/2003,dt 31/12/2003

Oath of President.

42. Before entering upon office, the President shall make before the Chief Justice of Pakistan oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.

Conditions of President's office.

43. (1) The President shall not hold any office of profit in the service of Pakistan or occupy any other position carrying the right to remuneration for the rendering of services.
(2) The President shall not be a candidate for election as a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or a Provincial Assembly; and, if a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or a Provincial Assembly is elected as President, his seat in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or, as the case may be, the Provincial Assembly shall become vacant on the day he enters upon his office.

Term of office of President.

44. (1) Subject to the Constitution, the President shall hold office for a term of five years from the day he enters upon his office:
Provided that the President shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.
(2) Subject to the Constitution, a person holding office as President shall be eligible for re-election to that office, but no person shall hold that office for more than two consecutive terms.
(3) The President may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Speaker of the National Assembly, resign his office.

President's power to grant pardon etc.

45. The President shall have power to grant pardon, reprieve and respite, and to remit, suspend or commute any sentence passed by any court, tribunal or other authority.

Duties of Prime Minister in relation to President.

46. It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister-
(a) to communicate to the President all decisions of the Cabinet relating to the administration of the affairs of the Federation and proposals for legislation;
(b) to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the Federation and proposals for legislation as the President may call for; and
(c) if the President so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Cabinet any matter on which a decision has been taken by the Prime Minister or a Minister but which has not been considered by the Cabinet.
 

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Removal (or impeachment) of President.

47. (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution, the President may, in accordance with the provision of this Article, be removed from office on the ground of physical or mental incapacity or impeached on a charge of violating the Constitution or gross misconduct.
(2) Not less than one-half of the total membership of either House may give to the Speaker of the National Assembly or, as the case may be, the Chairman written notice of its intention to move a resolution for the removal of, or, as the case may be, to impeach, the President; and such notice shall set out the particulars of his incapacity or of the charge against him.
(3) If a notice under clause (2) is received by the Chairman, he shall transmit it forthwith to the Speaker.
(4) The Speaker shall, within three days of the receipt of a notice under clause (2) or clause (3), cause a copy of the notice to be transmitted to the President.
(5) The Speaker shall summon the two Houses to meet in a joint sitting not earlier than seven days and not later than fourteen days after the receipt of the notice by him.
(6) The joint sitting may investigate or cause to be investigated the ground or the charge upon which the notice is founded.
(7) The President shall have the right to appear and be represented during the investigation, if any, and before the joint sitting.
(8) If, after consideration of the result of the investigation, if any, a resolution is passed at the joint sitting by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) declaring that the President is unfit to hold the office due to incapacity or is guilty of violating the Constitution or of gross misconduct, the President shall cease to hold office immediately on the passing of the resolution.

President to act on advice, etc.

48. (1) In the exercise of his functions, the President shall act in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet, (or the Prime Minister)
Provided that the President may require the Cabinet or, as the case may be, the Prime Minister to reconsider such advice, either generally or otherwise, and the President shall act in accordance with the advice tendered after such reconsideration.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause(1), the President shall act in his discretion in respect of any matter in respect of which he is empowered by the Constitution to do so and the validity of anything done by the President in his discretion shall not be called in question on any ground whatsoever".
(4) The question whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered to the President by the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, a Minister or Minister of State shall not be inquired into in, or by, any court, tribunal or other authority,
(5) Whether the President dissolves the National Assembly, he shall, in his discretion,-
(a) appoint a date, not later than (Ninety) days from the date of the dissolution, for the holding of a general election to the Assembly, and
(b) appoint a care-taker Cabinet.
(6) If, at any time, the President, in his discretion, or on the advice of the Prime Minister, considers that it is desirable that any matter of national importance should be referred to a referendum, the President may cause the matter to be referred to a referendum in the form of a question that is capable of being answered either by "Yes" or "No".
(7) An Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) may lay down the procedure for the holding of a referendum and the compiling and consolidation of the result of a referendum.

Chairman or Speaker to act as, or perform functions of, President.

49. (1) If the office of President becomes vacant by reason of death, resignation or removal of the President, the Chairman or, if he is unable to perform the functions of the office of President, the Speaker of the National Assembly shall act as President until a President is elected in accordance with clause (3) of Article 41.
(2) When the President, by reason of absence from Pakistan or any other cause, is unable to perform his functions, the Chairman or, if he too is absent or unable to perform the functions of the office of President, the Speaker of the National Assembly shall perform the functions of President until the President returns to Pakistan or, as the case may be, resumes his functions

Chapter 2

THE MAJLIS-E-SHOORA (PARLIAMENT)

Composition, Duration and Meetings of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)

Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)

50. There shall be a Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) of Pakistan consisting of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the National Assembly and the Senate.

National Assembly.

51 1 (1) There shall be three hundred and forty-two seats of the members in the National Assembly, including seats reserved for women and non-Muslims
(1A) The seats in the National Assembly referred to in clause (1), except as provided in clause (2A), are allocated to each Province, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the Federal Capital as under.
General Seats Women Total
Balochistan 14 3 17
The North West Frontier Province 35 8 43
The Punjab 148 35 183
Sind 61 14 75
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas 12 - 12
The Federal Capital 2 - 2
Total 272 60 332
(2) A person shall be entitled to vote if-
(a) he is a citizen of Pakistan;
(b) he is not less than 2(eighteen) years of age;
(c) his name appears on the electoral roll; and
(d) he is not declared by a competent court to be of unsound mind.
3 (2A) In addition to the number of seats referred to in clause (1), there shall be, in the National Assembly, ten seats reserved for non-Muslims
(3) The seats in the National Assembly shall be allocated to each province, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the Federal Capital on the basis pf population in accordance with the last preceding census officially published
'[(4) For the purpose of election to the National Assembly,-
(a) the constituencies for the general seats shall be single member territorial constituencies and the members to fill such seats shall be elected by direct and free vote in accordance with law;
(b) each Province shall be a single constituency for all seats reserved for women which are allocated to the respective Provinces under clause (lA);
(c) the constituency for all seats reserved for non-Muslims shall be the whole country;
(d) members to the seats reserved for women which are allocated to a Province under clause (lA) shall be elected in accordance with law through proportional representation system of political parties' lists of candidates on the basis of total number of general seats secured by each political party from the Province concerned in the National Assembly [:]2
Provided that for the purpose of this sub-clause the total number of general seats won by a political party shall include the independent returned candidate or candidates who may duly join political party within three days of the publication in the official Gazette of the names of the returned candidates;
(e) members to the seats reserved for non-Muslims shall be elected in accordance with law through proportional representation system of political parties' lists of candidates on the basis of total number of general seats won by each political party in the National Assembly: .
[Provided that for the purpose of this sub- clause the total number of general seats won by a political party shall include the independent returned candidate or candidates who may duly join such political party within three days of publication un the official Gazette of the names of the returned candidates;]]
4* * * * * * *
1Subs by the Legal Framework Order,2002(C.E's O. No 24 of 2002) Art.3 and Sch., for cl. (4), which was previously amended by Act 18 of 1985, s.3.
2 Subs. ibid for "twenty one"
3 Subs by the Legal Framework Order,2002(C.E's O. No 24 of 2002) Art.3 and Sch., for the semi-colon, which was further amended by C.E's. O. No 29 of 2002,Art. 2
4 Cls. (4A) to (6) omitted by Legal Framework Order,2002(C.E's. O.No.24 of 2002),Art.3 ans sch., which was previously amended by various enactments.

Duration of National Assembly

52. The National Assembly shall, unless sooner dissolved, continue for a term of five years from the day of its first meeting and shall stand dissolved at the expiration of its term.

Speaker and Deputy Speaker of National Assembly

53 (1) After a general election, the National Assembly shall, at its first meeting and to the exclusion of any other business, elect from amongst its members a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker and, so often as the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker becomes vacant, the Assembly shall elect another member as Speaker or, as the case may be, Deputy Speaker.
(2) Before entering upon office, a member elected as Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall make before the National Assembly oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.
(3) When the office of Speaker is vacant, or the Speaker is absent or is unable to perform his functions due to any cause, the Deputy Secretary shall act as Speaker, and if, at that time, the Deputy Speaker is also absent or is unable to act as Speaker due to any cause, such member as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the Assembly shall preside at the meeting of the Assembly.
(4) The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker shall not preside at a meeting of the Assembly when a resolution for his removal from office is being considered.
(5) The Speaker may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.
(6) The Deputy Speaker may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Speaker, resign his office.
(7) The office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall become vacant if-
(a) he resigns his office;
(b) he ceases to be a member of the Assembly; or
(c) he is removed from office by a resolution of the Assembly, of which not less than seven days' notice has been given and which is passed by the votes of the majority of the total membership of the Assembly.
(8) When the National Assembly is dissolved, the Speaker shall continue in his office till the person elected to fill the office by the next Assembly enters upon his office.

Summoning and prorogation of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).

54. (1) The President may, from time to time, summon either House or both Houses or Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) in joint sitting to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit and may also prorogue the same.
(2) There shall be at least (three) sessions of the National Assembly every year, and not more than one hundred and twenty days shall intervene between the last sitting of the Assembly in one session and the date appointed for its first sitting in the next session:
Provided that the National Assembly shall meet for not less than one hundred and (Thirty) working days in each year.
Explanation.- In this clause, "working days" includes any day on which there is a joint sitting and any period, not exceeding two days, for which the National Assembly is adjourned.
(3) On a requisition signed by not less than one-fourth of the total membership of the National Assembly, the Speaker shall summon the National Assembly to meet, at such time and place as he thinks fit, within fourteen days of the receipt of the requisition; and when the Speaker has summoned the Assembly only he may prorogue it.

Voting in Assembly and quorum.

55. (1) Subject to the Constitution, all decisions of the National Assembly shall be taken by majority of the members present and voting, but the person presiding shall not vote except in the case of equality of votes.
(2) If at any time during a sitting of the National Assembly the attention of the person presiding is drawn to the fact that less than one-fourth of the total membership of the Assembly is present, he shall either adjourn the Assembly or suspend the meeting until at least one-fourth of such membership is present.

Address by President

56. (1) The President may address either House or both Houses assembled together and may for that purpose require the attendance of the members.
(2) The President may send messages to either House, whether with respect to a Bill then pending in the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or otherwise, and a House to which any message is so sent shall with all convenient dispatch consider any matter required by the message to be taken into consideration.
"(3) At the commencement of the first session after each general election to the National Assembly and at the commencement of the first session of each year the President shall address both Houses assembled together and inform the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) of the causes of its summons."
(4) Provision shall be made in the rules for regulating the procedure of a House and the conduct of its business for the allotment of time for discussion of the matters referred to in the address of the President.

Right to speak in (Majlis-e-Shoora(Parliament))

57. The Prime Minister, a Federal Minister, a Minister of State and the Attorney General shall have the right to speak and otherwise take part in the proceedings of either House, or a joint sitting or any committee thereof, of which he may be named a member, but shall not by virtue of this Article be entitled to vote.

Dissolution of the National Assembly.

58. (1) The President shall dissolve the National Assembly if so advised by the Prime Minister; and the National Assembly shall, unless sooner dissolved, stand dissolved at the expiration of forty-eight hours after the Prime Minister has so advised.
Explanation. - Reference in this Article to “Prime Minister” shall not be construed to include reference to a Prime Minister against whom a (notice of a resolution for a vote of no-confidence has been given) in the National Assembly but has not been voted upon or against whom such a resolution has been passed or who is continuing in office after his resignation or after the dissolution of the National Assembly
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (2) of Article 48, the President may also dissolve the National Assembly in his discretion where, in his opinion, -
(a) a vote of no-confidence having been passed against the Prime Minister, no other member of the National Assembly is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, as ascertained in a session of the National Assembly summoned for the purpose;
4[(b) a situation has been arisen in which the Government of the Federal cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and an appeal to the electorate in necessary.]
7(3) The President in case of dissolution of the National Assembly under paragraph (b) of clause (2) shall, within fifteen days of the dissolution, refer the matter to the Supreme court and the Supreme Court shall decide the reference within thirty days whose decision shall be final
4 New Paragraph (b) added by the Legal Framework Order, 2002(C.E's O. No. 24 of 2002), Art. 3and Sch.,
7 Added by Act No. III/2003, dt.31/12/2003.

The Senate

59. (1) The Senate shall consist of one hundred members, of whom-
(a) fourteen shall be elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly;
(b) eight shall be elected by the members from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in such manner as the President may, by Order, prescribe;
(c) two on general seats, and one woman and one technocrat including aalim shall be elected from the Federal Capital in such manner as the President may, by Order, prescribe;
(d) four women shall be elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly
(e) four technocrats including ulema shall be elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly
(2) Election to fill seats in the Senate allocated to each Province shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.
(3) The Senate shall not be subject to dissolution but the term of its members, who shall retire as follows, shall be six years:-
(a) of the members referred to in paragraph (a) of clause (1), seven shall retire after the expiration of the first three years and seven shall retire after the expiration of the next three years;
(b) of the members referred to in paragraph (b) of the aforesaid clause, four shall retire after the expiration of the first three years and four shall retire after the expiration of the next three years;
1(c) of the members referred to in paragraph (c) of the aforesaid clause,
(i) one elected on general seat shall retire after the expiration of the first three years and the other one shall retire after the expiration of the next three years
ii) one elected on the seat reserved for technocrat shall retire after first three years and the one elected on the seat reserved for woman shall retire after expiration of the next three years;
3 (d) of the members referred to in paragraph (d) of the aforesaid clause, two shall retire after the expiration of the first three years and two shall retire after the expiration of the next three years; and
(e) of the members referred to in paragraph (e) of the aforesaid clause, two shall retire after the expiration of first three years and two shall retire after the expiration of the next three years
1 Subs. by C.E's O. No. 24 of 2002, Art.3 and Sch., for paragraph (c)
2 Subs. by the Legal Framework Order, 2002, (C.E's. O. No. 24 of 2002) Art.3 and Sch., for paragraph (d)
3 1 Subs. by C.E's O. No. 24 of 2002, Art.3 and Sch., for paragraph (d)
 

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Chairman and Deputy Chairman

60 (1) After the Senate has been duly constituted, it shall, at its first meeting and to the exclusion of any other business, elect from amongst its members a Chairman and a Deputy Chairman and, so often as the Office of Chairman or Deputy Chairman becomes vacant, the Senate shall elect another member as Chairman or, as the case may be, Deputy Chairman.
(2) The term of office of the Chairman or Deputy Chairman shall be [three] years from the day on which he enters upon his office.

Other provisions relating to Senate.
Provisions as to Members of
Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)


61. The provisions of clauses (2) to (7) of Article 53, clauses (2) and (3) of Article 54 and Article 55 shall apply to the Senate as they apply to the National Assembly and, in their application to the Senate, shall have effect as if references therein to the National Assembly, Speaker and Deputy Speaker were references, respectively, to the Senate, Chairman and Deputy Chairman [and as if, in the proviso to the said clause (2) of Article 54, for the words [one hundred and thirty] the word “ninety” were substituted].

Qualifications for membership of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)


62. A person shall not be qualified to be elected or chosen as a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) unless—
(a) he is a citizen of Pakistan;
1(b) he is, in the case of National Assembly, not less than twenty- five years of age and is enrolled as a voter in any electoral roll in-
(i) any part of Pakistan, for election to a general seat or a seat reserved for non-Muslims; and
(ii) any area in a Province from which he seeks membership for election to a seat reserved for women
(c) he is, in the case of Senate, not less than thirty years of age and is enrolled as a voter in any area in a Province or, as the case may be, the Federal Administered Tribal Areas, from where he seeks membership;
(d) he is of good character and is not commonly known as one who violates Islamic Injunctions;
(e) he has adequate knowledge of Islamic teachings and practices obligatory duties prescribed by Islam as well as abstains from major sins;
(f) he is sagacious, righteous and non-profligate and honest and ameen;
(g) he has not been convicted for a crime involving moral turpitude or for giving false evidence;
(h) he has not, after the establishment of Pakistan, worked against the integrity of the country or opposed the ideology of Pakistan:
Provided that the disqualifications specified in paragraphs (d) and (e) shall not apply to a person who is a non-Muslim, but such a person shall have good moral reputation; and
(i) he possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed by Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
1 Subs. by the Legal Framework Order, 2002, (C.E's. O. No. 24 of 2002) Art.3 and Sch., for cl. (b)

Disqualifications for membership of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).

63. (1) A person shall be disqualified from being elected or chosen as, and from being, a member of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), if—
(a) he is of unsound mind and has been so declared by a competent court; or
(b) he is an undischarged insolvent; or
(c) he ceases to be a citizen of Pakistan, or acquires the citizenship of a foreign State; or
(d) he holds an office of profit in the service of Pakistan other than an office declared by law not to disqualify its holder; or
(e) he is in the service of any statutory body or any body which is owned or controlled by the Government or in which the Government has a controlling share or interest; or
(f) being a citizen of Pakistan by virtue of section 14B of the Pakistan Citizenship Act, 1951 (II of 1951), he is for the time being disqualified under any law in force in Azad Jammu and Kashmir from being elected as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Azad Jammu and Kashmir; or
(g) he is propagating any opinion, or acting in any manner, prejudicial to the Ideology of Pakistan, or the sovereignty, integrity or security of Pakistan, or morality, or the maintenance of public order, or the integrity or independence of the judiciary of Pakistan, or which defames or brings into ridicule the judiciary or the Armed Forces of Pakistan; or
1(h) he has been convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction on the charge of corrupt practice, moral turpitude or misuse of power or authority under any law for the time being in force; or
(i) he has been dismissed from the service of Pakistan or service of a corporation or office set up or, controlled by the Federal Government, Provincial Government on the ground of misconduct or moral turpitude; or ]
(j) he has been removed or compulsorily retired from the service of Pakistan on the ground of misconduct unless a period of three years has elapsed since his removal or compulsory retirement; or
(k) he has been in the service of Pakistan or of any statutory body or any body which is owned or controlled by the Government or in which the Government has a controlling share or interest, unless a period of two years has elapsed since he ceased to be in such service; or
(l) he is found guilty of a corrupt or illegal practice under any law for the time being in force, unless a period of five years has elapsed from the date on which that order takes effect; or
(m) he has been convicted under section 7 of the Political Parties Act, 1962 (III of 1962), unless a period of five years has elapsed from the date of such conviction; or
(n) he, whether by himself or by any person or body of persons in trust for him or for his benefit or on his account or as a member of a Hindu undivided family, has any share or interest in a contract, not being a contract between a cooperative society and Government, for the supply of goods to, or form the execution of any contract or for the performance of any service undertaken by, Government :
Provided that the disqualification under this paragraph shall not apply to a person—
(i) where the share or interest in the contract devolves on him by inheritance or succession or as a legatee, executor or administrator, until the expiration of six months after it has so devolved on him;
(ii) where the contract has been entered into by or on behalf of a public company as defined in the Companies Ordinance, 1984 (XLVII of 1984), of which he is a shareholder but is not a director holding an office of profit under the company; or
(iii) where he is a member of a Hindu undivided family and the contract has been entered into by any other member of that family in the course of carrying on a separate business in which he has no share or interest; or
Explanation. —In this Article “goods” does not include agricultural produce or commodity grown or produced by him or such goods as he is, under any directive of Government or any law for the time being in force, under a duty or obligation to supply.
(o) he holds any office of profit in the service of Pakistan other than the following offices, namely:--
(i) an office which is not whole time office remunerated either by salary or by fee;
(ii) the office of Lumbardar, whether called by this or any other title;
(iii) the Qaumi Razakars;
(iv) any office the holder whereof, by virtue of such office, is liable to be military service under any law providing for the constitution or raising of a Force; or
1 (p) he has been convicted and sentenced to imprisonment for having absconded by a competent court under any law for time being in force
(q) he has obtained a loan for an amount of two million rupees or more, from any bank, financial institution, cooperative society or cooperative body in his own name or in the name.. of his spouse or any of his dependents, which remains unpaid for more than one year from the due date, or has got such loan written off; or
(r) he or his spouse or any of his dependents has defaulted in payment of government dues, and utility expenses, including telephone, electricity, gas and water charges in excess of ten thousand rupees, for over six months, at the time of filling his nomination papers 2[; or]]
3(s) he is for the time being disqualified from being elected or chosen as a member of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or of a Provincial Assembly under any law for the time being in force.]
4[(2) If any question arises 'whether a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) has become disqualified from being a member, the Speaker or, as the case may be, the Chairman shall, within thirty days from raising of such question refer the question to the Chief Election Commissioner.]
1[(3) Where a question is referred to the Chief Election Commissioner under clause (2), he shall lay such question before the Election Commission which shall give its decision thereon not later than three months from its receipt by the Chief Election Commissioner.]
'Subs. by the Legal Framework Order, 2002 (c. E's O. No. 24 of 2002), Art. 3 and Sch., for paragraph (p).
2Subs. by the Legal Framework Order, 2002 (c. E's, O. No. 24 of 2002), Art. 3 and Sch., for the full-stop, which was further amended by C. E's. O. No. 29 of 2002, Art. 2.
3New pragraph (s) added and shall be deemed always to have been so added ibid., ibid.,
4Subs. by C. E's. O. No. 24 of 2002, Art. 3 and Sch., for cl. (2).

Disqualification on ground of defection, etc.


63A. 1(1) If a member of a Parliamentary Party composed of a single political party in a House-
(a) resigns from membership of his political party or joins. another Parliamentary party; or
(b) votes or abstains from voting in the House contrary to any direction issued by the Parliamentary Party to which he belongs, in relation to-
(i) election of the Prime Minister or the Chief Minister; or
(ii) a vote of confidence or a vote of no-confidence; or
(iii) a Money Bill;
he may be declared in writing by the Head of the Parliamentary party to have defected from the political party, and the Head of the Parliamentary Party may forward a copy of the declaration to to Presiding Officer, and shall similarly forward a copy thereof to the member concerned:
Provided that before making the declaration, the Head of the Parliamentary Party shall provide such member with an opportunity to show cause as to why such declaration may not be made against him.
(2) A member of a House shall be deemed to be a member of a Parliamentary Party if he, having been elected as a candidate as a candidate or nominee of a political party which constitutes the Parliamentary Party in the House or, having been elected otherwise than as a candidate or nominee of a political party, has become a member of such Parliamentary Party after such election after such election by means of a declaration in writing.
(3) Upon receipt of the declaration under clause (1), the Presiding Officer of the House shall within two days refer the declaration to the Chief Election Commissioner who shall lay the declaration before the Election Commission for its decision thereon confirming the declaration or otherwise within thirty days of its receipt by the Chief Election Commissioner.
(4) Where the Election Commission confirms the declaration, the member referred to in clause (1) shall cease to be a member of the House and his seat shall become vacant.
(5) Any party aggrieved by the decision of the Election Commission may, within thirty days, prefer an appeal to the Supreme Court which shall decide the matter within three months from the date of the filing of the appeal.
(6) Nothing contained in this Article shall apply to the Chairman or Speaker of a House.
(7) For the purpose of this Article,-
(a) "House" means the National Assembly or the Senate, in relation to the Federation; and a Provincial Assembly in relation to the Province, as the case may be;
(b) "Presiding Officer" means the Speaker of the National Assembly, the Chairman of the Senate or the Speaker of the Provincial Assembly, as the case may be.]
1Subs. ibid., for article 63A, which was previously amended by Act 24 of 1997 s.2.
 

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Vacation of seats.

64. (1) A member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Speaker or, as the case may be, the Chairman resign his seat, and thereupon his seat shall become vacant.
(2) A House may declare the seat of a member vacant if, without leave of the House, he remains absent for forty consecutive days of its sittings.

Oath of members.

65. A person elected to a House shall not sit or vote until he has made before the House oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.

Privileges of members, etc.
Procedure Generally


66. (1) Subject to the Constitution and to the rules of procedure of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), there shall be freedom of speech in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and no member shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), and no person shall be so liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) of any report, paper, votes or proceedings.
(2) In other respects, the powers, immunities and privileges of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), and the immunities and privileges of the members of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) shall be such as may from time to time be defined by law and, until so defined, shall be such as were, immediately before the commencing day, enjoyed by the National Assembly of Pakistan and the committees thereof and its members.
(3) Provision may be made by law for the punishment, by a House, of persons who refuse to give evidence or produce documents before a committee of the House when duly required by the chairman of the committee so to do:
Provided that any such law—
(a) may empower a court to punish a person who refuses to give evidence or produce documents; and
(b) shall have effect subject to such Order for safeguarding confidential matters from disclosure as may be made by the President.
(4) The provisions of this Article shall apply to persons who have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) as they apply to members.
(5) In this Article, Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) means either House or a joint sitting, or a committee thereof.

Rules of Procedure, etc.

67. 1) Subject to the Constitution, a House may make rules for regulating its procedure and the ( conduct of the business, and shall have power to act notwithstanding any vacancy in the membership thereof, and any proceedings in the House shall not be invalid on the ground that some persons who were not entitled to do so sat, voted or otherwise took part in the proceedings.
(2) Until rules are made under clause (1), the procedure and conduct of business in a House shall be regulated by the rules of procedure made by the Parliament.

Restriction on discussion in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).

68. No discussion shall take place in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge of his duties.

Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
Legislative Procedure


69. (1) The validity of any proceedings in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) shall not be called in question on the ground of any irregularity of procedure.
(2) No officer or member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) in whom powers are vested by or under the Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining order in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of those powers.
(3) In this Article, Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) has the same meaning as in Article 66.

Introduction and passing of Bills.

70. (1) A Bill with respect to any matter in the Federal Legislative List or in the Concurrent Legislative List may originate in either House and shall, if it is passed by the House in which it originated, be transmitted to the other House; and, if the Bill is passed without amendment, by the other House also, it shall be presented to the President for assent.
(2) If a Bill transmitted to a House under clause (1) is rejected or is not passed within ninety days of its receipt or is passed with amendment, the Bill, at the request of the House in which it originated, shall be 1[referred to a Mediation Committee constituted under Article 71 for considered and resolution thereon.]
2[(3)Where a Bill is referred to the Mediation Committee under clause (2), the Mediation Committee shall, within ninety days, formulate an agreed Bill which is likely to be passed by both Houses of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and place the agreed Bill separately before each House, and if both the Houses pass the Bill, it shall be presented to the President for assent]
(4) In this Article and the succeeding provisions of the Constitution, "Federal Legislative List" and ".Concurrent Legislative List" means respectively the Federal Legislative List and the Concurrent Legislative List in the Fourth Schedule.]
1 Subs. by the Legal Framework Order, 2002(C.E's O. No. 24 of 2002), Art.3 and Sch., for certain words
2 Subs. by the Legal Framework Order, 2002(C.E's O. No. 24 of 2002), Art.3 and Sch., for cl.(3)

Mediation Committee.


71. 1(1) Both Houses of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) shall, within fifteen days from the date of referral of the Bill by the House in which it was originated for consideration and resolution by the Mediation Committee under clause (2) of Article 70, nominate eight members each as members of a Mediation Committee.
(2) The House in which the Bill was originated shall nominate a member of the Mediation Committee as Chairman of the Committee and the other House shall nominate a member as the Vice-Chairman thereof.
(3) All decisions of the Mediation Committee shall be made by a majority of the total number of members of each House in the Committee.
(4) The President may, in consultation with the Speaker of the National Assembly and Chairman of the Senate, make rules for conduct of business of the Mediation Committee.]
1Subs. by the Legal Framework Order, 2002(C.E's O. No. 24 of 2002), Art.3 and Sch., for cl.(3)

Procedure at joint sittings.

72. (1) The President, after consultation with the Speaker of the National Assembly and the Chairman, may make rules as to the procedure with respect to the joint sittings of, and communications between, the two Houses.
(2) At the joint sitting, the Speaker of the National Assembly or, in his absence, such person as may be determined by the rules made under clause (1), shall preside.
(3) The rules made under clause (1) shall be laid before a joint sitting and may be added to, varied, amended or replaced at a joint sitting.
(4) Subject to the Constitution, all decisions at a joint sitting shall be taken by the votes of the majority of the members present and voting.

Procedure with respect to Money Bill.

73. 1(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 70, a Money Bill shall originate in the National Assembly:
Provided that simultaneously when a Money Bill, including the Finance Bill containing the Annual Budget Statement, is presented in the National Assembly, a copy thereof shall be transmitted to the Senate which may, within seven days, make recommendations thereon to the National Assembly
(1A) The National Assembly shall, consider the recommendations of the Senate and after the Bill has been passed by the assembly with or without incorporating the recommendations of the Senate, it shall be presented to the President for assent]
(2) For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill or amendment shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters, namely:-
(a) the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax;
(b) the borrowing of money, or the giving of any guarantee, by the Federal Government, or the amendment of the law relating to the financial obligations of that Government;
(c) the custody of the Federal Consolidated Fund, the payment of moneys into, or the issue of moneys from, that Fund;
(d) the imposition of a charge upon the Federal Consolidated Fund, or the abolition or alteration of any such charge;
(e) the receipt of moneys on account of the Public Account of the Federation, the custody or issue of such moneys;
(f) the audit of the accounts of the Federal Government or a Provincial Government; and
(g) any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in the preceding paragraphs.
(3) A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides—
(a) for the imposition or alteration of any fine or other pecuniary penalty, or for the demand or payment of a licence fee or a fee or charge for any service rendered; or
(b) for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes.
(4) If any question arises whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the National Assembly thereon shall be final.
(5) Every Money Bill presented to the President for assent shall bear a certificate under the hand of the Speaker of the National Assembly that it is a Money Bill, and such certificate shall be conclusive for all purposes and shall not be called in question.
1Subs. by the Legal Framework Order, 2002(C.E's O. No. 24 of 2002), Art.3 and Sch., for cl.(1), which was previously amended by P.O 14 of 1985), Art.2 and Sch.,

Federal Government’s consent required for financial measures.

74. A Money Bill, or a Bill or amendment which if enacted and brought into operation would involve expenditure from the Federal Consolidated Fund or withdrawal from the Public Account of the Federation or affect the coinage or currency of Pakistan or the constitution or functions of the State Bank of Pakistan shall not be introduced or moved in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) except by or with the consent of the Federal Government.

President’s assent to Bills.

75. (1) When a Bill is presented to the President for assent, the President shall, within thirty days.—
(a) assent to the Bill; or
(b) in the case of a Bill other than a Money Bill, return the Bill to the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) with a message requesting that the Bill, or any specified provision thereof, be reconsidered and that any amendment specified in the message be considered.
(2) When the President has returned a Bill to the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), it shall be reconsidered by the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) 1* * * and, if it is again passed, with or without amendment, by the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), 2 [in accordance with article 70] it shall be deemed for the purposes of the Constitution to have been passed by both Houses and shall be presented to the President and the President shall not withhold assent therefrom.
(3) When the President has assented to a Bill, it shall become law and be called an Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
(4) No Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (parliament), and no provision in any such Act, shall be invalid by reason only that some recommendation, previous sanction or consent required by the Constitution was not given if that Act was assented to in accordance with the Constitution.
1The words "in joint sitting" omitted by the Legal Framework Order, 2002(C.E's O. No. 24 of 2002), Art.3 and Sch.,
Subs. ibid., for certain words
 

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Bill not to lapse on prorogation, etc

76. (1) A Bill pending in either House shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation of the House.
(2) A Bill pending in the Senate which has not been passed by the National Assembly shall not lapse on the dissolution of the National Assembly.
(3) A Bill pending in the National Assembly, or a Bill which having been passed by the National Assembly is pending in the Senate, shall lapse on the dissolution of the National Assembly.

Financial Procedure
.
77. No tax shall be levied for the purposes of the Federation except by or under the authority of Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) Tax to be levied by law only.

Federal Consolidated Fund and Public Account

78. (1) All revenues received by the Federal Government, all loans raised by that Government, and all moneys received by it in repayment of any loan, shall form part of a consolidated fund, to be known as the Federal Consolidated Fund.
(2) All other moneys—
(a) received by or on behalf of the Federal Government; or
(b) received by or deposited with the Supreme Court or any other court established under the authority of the Federation;
shall be credited to the Public Account of the Federation.

Custody, etc., of Federal Consolidated Fund and Public Account.

79. The custody of the Federal Consolidated Fund, the payment of moneys into that Fund, the withdrawal of moneys therefrom, the custody of other moneys received by or on behalf of the Federal Government, their payment into, and withdrawal from, the Public Account of the Federation, and all matters connected with or ancillary to the matters aforesaid shall be regulated by Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or, until provision in that behalf is so made, by rules made by the President.

Annual Budget Statement.

80. (1) The Federal Government shall, in respect of every financial year, cause to be laid before the National Assembly a statement of the estimated receipts and expenditure of the Federal Government for that year, in this Part referred to as the Annual Budget Statement.
(2) The Annual Budget Statement shall show separately—
(a) the sums required to meet expenditure described by the Constitution as expenditure charged upon the Federal Consolidated Fund; and
(b) the sums required to meet other expenditure proposed to be made from the Federal Consolidated Fund;
and shall distinguish expenditure on revenue account from other expenditure.

Expenditure charged upon Federal Consolidated Fund.

81. The following expenditure shall be expenditure charged upon the Federal Consolidated Fund:-
(a) the remuneration payable to the President and other expenditure relating to his office, and the remuneration payable to-
(i) the Judges of the Supreme Court;
(ii) the Chief Election Commissioner;
(iii) the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman;
(iv) the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly;
(v) the Auditor General;
(b) the administrative expenses, including the remuneration payable to officers and servants, of the Supreme Court, the department of the Auditor-General and the Office of the Chief Election Commissioner and of the Election Commission and the Secretariat of the Senate and the National Assembly;
(c) all debt charges for which the Federal Government is liable, including interest, sinking fund charges, the repayment or amortisation of capital, and other expenditure in connection with the raising of loans, and the service and redemption of debt on the security of the Federal Consolidated Fund;
(d) any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or award against Pakistan by any court or tribunal; and
(e) any other sums declared by the Constitution or by Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) to be so charged.

Procedure relating to Annual Budget Statement.

82. (1) So much of the Annual Budget Statement as relates to expenditure charged upon the Federal Consolidated Fund may be discussed in, but shall not be submitted to the vote of, the National Assembly.
(2) So much of the Annual Budget Statement as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted to the National Assembly in the form of demands for grants, and the Assembly shall have power to assent to, or to refuse to assent to, any demand, or to assent to any demand subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein:
Provided that, for a period of ten years from the commencing day or the holding of the second general election to the National Assembly, whichever occurs later, a demand shall be deemed to have been assented to without any reduction of the amount specified therein, unless, by the votes of a majority of the total membership of the Assembly, it is refused or assented to subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein
(3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the Federal Government.

83. (1) The Prime Minister shall authenticate by his signature a schedule specifying—
(a) the grants made or deemed to have been made by the National Assembly under Article 82, and
(b) the several sums required to meet the expenditure charged upon the Federal Consolidated Fund but not exceeding, in the case of any sum, the sum shown in the statement previously laid before the National Assembly.
(2) The schedule so authenticated shall be laid before the National Assembly, but shall not be open to discussion or vote thereon.
(3) Subject to the Constitution, no expenditure from the Federal Consolidated Fund shall be deemed to be duly authorised unless it is specified in the schedule so authenticated and such schedule is laid before the National Assembly as required by clause (2). Authentication of schedule of authorised expenditure.

Supplementary and excess grants.


84. If in respect of any financial year it is found—
(a) that the amount authorised to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is insufficient, or that a need has arisen for expenditure upon some new service not included in the Annual Budget Statement for that year; or
(b) that any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of the amount granted for that service for that year;
the Federal Government shall have power to authorise expenditure from the Federal Consolidated Fund, whether the expenditure is charged by the Constitution upon that Fund or not, and shall cause to be laid before the National Assembly a Supplementary Budget Statement or, as the case may be, an Excess Budget Statement, setting out the amount of that expenditure, and the provisions of Articles 80 to 83 shall apply to those statements as they apply to the Annual Budget Statement.

Votes on account.


85. Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions relating to financial matters, the National Assembly shall have power to make any grant in advance in respect of the estimated expenditure for a part of any financial year, not exceeding four months, pending completion of the procedure prescribed in Article 82 for the voting of such grant and the authentication of the schedule of authorised expenditure in accordance with the provisions of Article 83 in relation to the expenditure.

Power to authorise expenditure when Assembly stands dissolved.


86. Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions relating to financial matters, at any time when the National Assembly stands dissolved, the Federal Government may authorise expenditure from the Federal Consolidated Fund in respect of the estimated expenditure for a period not exceeding four months in any financial year, pending completion of the procedure prescribed in Article 82 for the voting of grants and the authentication of the schedule of authorised expenditure in accordance with the provisions of Article 83 in relation to the expenditure.

Secretariats of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).

87. (1) Each House shall have a separate Secretariat:
Provided that nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the creation of posts common to both Houses.
(2) Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) may by law regulate the recruitment and the conditions of service of persons appointed to the secretarial staff of either House.
(3) Until provision is made by Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) under clause (2), the Speaker or, as the case may be, the Chairman may, with the approval of the President, make rules regulating the recruitment, and the conditions of service, of persons appointed to the secretarial staff of the National Assembly or the Senate.

Ordinances

88. (1) The expenditure of the National Assembly and the Senate within authorised appropriations shall be controlled by the National Assembly or, as the case may be, the Senate acting on the advice of its Finance Committee.
(2) The Financer Committee shall consist of the Speaker or, as the case may be, the Chairman, the Minister of Finance and such other members as may be elected thereto by the National Assembly or, as the case may be, the Senate.
(3) The Finance Committee may make rules for regulating its procedure.
Finance Committees.

Power of President to promulgate Ordinances

89. (1) The President may, except when the National Assembly is in session, if satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary to take immediate action, make and promulgate an Ordinance as the circumstances may require.
(2) An Ordinance promulgated under this Article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and shall be subject to like restrictions as the power of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) to make law, but every such Ordinance—
(a) shall be laid—
(i) before the National Assembly if it {contains provisions dealing with all or any of the matters specified in clause (2) of Article 73}, and shall stand repealed at the expiration of four months from its promulgation or, if before the expiration of that period a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Assembly, upon the passing of that resolution;
(ii) before both Houses if it {does not contain provisions dealing with any of the matters referred to in sub-paragraph (i)}, and shall stand repealed at the expiration of four months from its promulgation or, if before the expiration of that period a resolution disapproving it is passed by either House, upon the passing of that resolution; and
(b) may be withdrawn at any time by the President.
(3) Without prejudice to the provisions of clause (2), an Ordinance laid before the National Assembly shall be deemed to be a Bill introduced in the National Assembly.


Chapter 3- Federal Government

Exercise of executive authority of the Federation.

90. (1) The executive authority of the Federation shall vest in the President and shall be exercised by him, either directly or through officers subordinate to him, in accordance with the Constitution.
(2) Nothing contained in clause (1) shall—
(a) be deemed to transfer to the President any functions conferred by any existing law on the Government of any Province or other authority; or
(b) prevent the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) from conferring by law functions on authorities other than the President.

The Cabinet.

91. (1) There shall be a Cabinet of Ministers, with the Prime Minister at its head, to aid and advise the President in the exercise of his functions.
(2) The President shall in his discretion appoint from amongst the members of the National Assembly a Prime Minister who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly.
(2A) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (2), after the twentieth day of March, one thousand nine hundred and ninety, the President shall invite the member of the National Assembly to be the Prime Minister who commands the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly, as ascertained in a session of the Assembly summoned for the purpose in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
(3) The person appointed under clause (2) {or, as the case may be, invited under clause (2A) shall, before entering upon the office, make before the President oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule and shall within a period of sixty days thereof obtain a vote of confidence from the National Assembly.
(4) The Cabinet, together with the Ministers of State, shall be collectively responsible to the National Assembly.
(5) The Prime Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, but the President shall not exercise his powers under this clause unless he is satisfied that the Prime Minister does not command the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly, in which case he shall summon the National Assembly and require the Prime Minister to obtain a vote of confidence from the Assembly.
(6) The Prime Minister may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.
(7) A Minister who for any period of six consecutive months is not a member of the National Assembly shall, at the expiration of that period, cease to be a Minister and shall not before the dissolution of that Assembly be again appointed a Minister unless he is elected a member of that Assembly:
Provided that nothing contained in this clause shall apply to a Minister who is a member of the Senate.
(8) Nothing contained in this Article shall be construed as disqualifying the Prime Minister or any other Minister or a Minister of State for continuing in office during any period during which the National Assembly stands dissolved, or as preventing the appointment of any person as Prime Minister or other Minister or as Minister of State during any such period.
 

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Federal Ministers and Ministers of State.

92. (1) Subject to clauses (7) and (8), the President shall appoint Federal Ministers of State from amongst the members of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) on the advice of the Prime Minister:
Provided that the number of Federal Ministers and Ministers of State who are members of the Senate shall not at any time exceed one-fourth of the number of Federal Ministers.
(2) Before entering upon office, a Federal Minister or Minister of State shall make before the President oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.
(3) A Federal Minister or Minister of State may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office or may be removed from office by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Advisers.


93. (1) The President may, on the advice of the Prime Minister, appoint not more than five Advisers, on such terms and conditions as he may determine.
(2) The provisions of Article 57 shall also apply to an Adviser.

Prime Minister continuing in office.

94. The President may ask the Prime Minister to continue to hold office until, his successor enters upon the office of Prime Minister.

Vote of no-confidence against Prime Minister.

95. (1) A resolution for a vote of no-confidence moved by not less than twenty per centum of the total membership of the National Assembly may be passed against the Prime Minister by the National Assembly.
(2) A resolution referred to in clause (1) shall not be voted upon before the expiration of three days, or later than seven days, from the day on which such resolution is moved in the National Assembly.
(3) A resolution referred to in clause (1) shall not be moved in the National Assembly while the National Assembly is considering demands for grants submitted to it in the Annual Budget Statement.
(4) If the resolution referred to in clause (1) is passed by a majority of the total membership of the National Assembly, the Prime Minister shall cease to hold office.

96. Omitted

Extent of executive authority of Federation

97. Subject to the Constitution, the executive authority of the Federation shall extend to the matters with respect to which Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) has power to make laws, including exercise of rights, authority and jurisdiction in and in relation to areas outside Pakistan. Provided that the said authority shall not, save as expressly provided in the Constitution or in any law made by Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), extend in any Province to a matter with respect to which the Provincial Assembly has also power to make laws.

Conferring of functions on subordinate authorities

98. On the recommendation of the Federal Government, Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) may by law confer functions upon officers or authorities subordinate to the Federal Government.

Conduct of business of Federal Government.
.
99. (1) All executive actions of the Federal Government shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President.
(2) The President shall by rules specify the manner in which orders and other instruments made and executed in his name shall be authenticated, and the validity of any order or instrument so authenticated shall not be questioned in any court on the ground that it was not made or executed by the President.
(3) The President shall also make rules for the allocation and transaction of the business of the Federal Government.

Attorney General for Pakistan

100. (1) The President shall appoint a person, being a person qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court, to be the Attorney-General for Pakistan.
(2) The Attorney-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.
(3) It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Federal Government upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may be referred or assigned to him by the Federal Government, and in the performance of his duties he shall have the right of audience in all courts and tribunals in Pakistan.
(4) The Attorney-General may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.


Provinces

CHAPTER 1. ---- THE GOVERNORS

Appointment of Governor.

101. (1) There shall be a Governor for each Province, who shall be appointed by the President 1after consultation with the Prime Minister
(2) A person shall not be appointed a Governor unless he is qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly and is not less than thirty-five years of age.
(3) The Governor shall hold office during the pleasure of the President {and shall be entitled to such salary, allowances and privileges as the President may determine}.
(4) The Governor may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.
(5) The President may make such provision as he thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of a Governor {in any contingency not provided for in this part}.
2 Subs. by the Legal Framework Order, 2002, (C.E's. O. No. 24 of 2002) Art.3 and Sch., for "on advice of" which was previously amendedby Act 1 of 1997 s.3 for "after consultation with"

Oath of office.

102. Before entering upon office, the Governor shall make before the Chief Justice of the High Court oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.

Conditions of Governor’s office.

103. (1) The Governor shall not hold any office of profit in the service of Pakistan or occupy any other position carrying the right to remuneration for the rendering of service.
(2) The Governor shall not be a candidate for election as a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or a Provincial Assembly and, if a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or a Provincial Assembly is appointed as Governor, his seat in Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or, as the case may be, the Provincial Assembly shall become vacant on the day he enters upon his office.

Acting Governor.

104. When the Governor is absent from Pakistan or is unable to perform the functions of his office due to any cause, such other person as the President may direct shall act as Governor.

Governor to act on advice etc

105. (1) Subject to the Constitution, in the performance of his functions, the Governor shall act in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet {or the Chief Minister}:
{Provided that the Governor may require the Cabinet or, as the case may be, the Chief Minister to reconsider such advice, whether generally or otherwise, and the Governor shall act in accordance with the advice of tendered after such reconsideration.}
(2) The question whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered to the Governor by the Chief Minister {or the Cabinet} shall not be inquired into in, or by, any court, tribunal or other authority.
(3) Where the Governor dissolves the Provincial Assembly, he shall appoint, in his discretion, but with the previous approval of the President, a care-taker Cabinet.
(4) The powers conferred by this Article on the President shall be exercised by him in his discretion.
(5) The provisions of clause (2) of Article 48 shall have effect in relation to a Governor as if reference therein to “President” were reference to “Governor”.
 
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